Abell history Midterm
Terms in this set (95)
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
A town in West Virginia that was the site of the 1859 abolitionists raid
Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown
Achievements and Failures of Articles of Confederation
The government is responsible for winning the war against Britain and for signing the treaty of Paris, but failed to do things such as impose taxes to fund a military.
Puritan vs. Pilgrim
-Difference: only one group wanted to split from the Anglican Church (emigrated to America)
William Loyd Garrison and The Liberator
Published the liberator a Boston Newspaper dedicated to the immediate abolition of slavery and stated that it should be immediatly abolished and no financial compensation should be given to slave owners
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony founded in 1630 by John Winthrop, part of the Great Puritan Migration, founded by puritans. Had a theocratic republic. "City upon a hill"
Which president had a Kitchen Cabinet?
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
Alexander Hamilton's Vision for America vs. Jefferson's Vision
Alexander Hamilton Believed in a stronger central government whereas Jefferson believed that states should hold most of the power.
Reasons for French support of America during the Revolutionary War
To get back at the British
Jackson's Native American Policy
To move the Natives wherever it was convenient for him
Northern Economy(what industries consisted of)
Mainly industrial, making products from the raw items that they would get from the south.
Southern Economy (what industries consisted of)
Mainly farming and agriculture
Erie Canal and what it allowed for
It allowed for a navigable water route from New York to the Atlantic.
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
Proclomation of 1763
law created by British officials that prohibited colonists from settling in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Marburg v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review
Articles of Confederation vs Constitution
Authority mostly held within the state. No executive branch. The constitution had power for a federal government and some power for the state. It also gave us an Executive branch as well
Lincoln's primary objective at start of civil war
To keep the country unified
government in which power is divided between the national, or federal, government and the states
The fight between the north and south over many issues, mainly slavery. 1861-1865
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
How is mercantilism successful?
It allows for the maximum amount of exports with as little imports as possible.
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
What was involved with Jeffersonian
Jefferson pushed for decentralization of the government, reducing the size of the military, and getting rid of almost all taxes.
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Advantages for North/South in Civil War
The north has a larger population, factories for make supplies, and the federal capital. The south has strong military generals and what they believed to be a good reason.
Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony
British general who surrendered at Yorktown
He was the royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Colonists resented his enforcement of the Navigation Acts and the attempt to abolish the colonial assembly.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
Head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy"
Father of the Constitution
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Invented the cotton gin
Congressman who proposed the amendment that would have outlawed slavery from Mexican territories
Francis Cabot Lowell
American industrialist who developed the Lowell system, a mill system that included looms that could both weave thread and spin cloth. He hired young women to live and work in his mill
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
(1817-1821) and (1821-1825) The Missouri Compromise in 1821., the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point.
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Who were the wealthiest people in colonial America?
They would have been the white plantation owners.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Powers that are reserved in the Constitution belong to which branch of government?
The federal government
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Number of electors per state
Each state chooses electors, amounting in number to that state's combined total of senators and representatives.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Purpose of Presidential Cabinet
The Cabinet offers advice to the president on important issues regarding the economy, foreign affairs, war, and domestic policy
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Washington's reasons for insuring a Proclamation of Neutrality during French/British conflicts
They could not afford To go to war or make an enemy
Washington's Farewell from Office
A letter that he wrote saying goodbye to all his citizens and friends.
Reasons for beginning of industrial Revolution
Availability of labor, raw materials, and emergence of water power
Reasons for Slave labor in colonial America
Slave labor was cheaper than paying someone regularly, there was too much work to be done that can't be done effectively without the help of a considerable amount of people.
Henry Clay's American System
Believed that the federal government should become stronger, he put in place taxes so the government could regain power and have money to effect change.
How did the North attempt to ruin the southern economy during the civil war?
They blockaded their port cities.
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Ramifications of Jackson's war on the National Banks
I caused money to become less valuable then caused an economic collapse
Loyalty to a region
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Political party of the 1850s that was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant
People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico