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117 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 16

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Adipose
Pertaining to fat.
Albinism
Inherited absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.
Albino
Individual lacking normal body pigment (melanin).
Alopecia
Baldness.
Alopecia areata
An idiopathic condition in which hair falls out in patches.
Anhidrosis
Absence of sweating.
Apocrine sweat gland
One of the large dermal exocrine glands located in the axilla and genital areas. It secretes sweat that, in action with bacteria, is responsible for human body odor.
Atopic dermatitis
Inflammation of skin (rash and intense itching) that tends to occur in patients with a family history of allergic reactions.
Basal layer
Lower layer of cells in the epidermis.
Burns
Injury to tissues caused by heat contact.
Causalgia
Intense burning pain, often resulting from injury to a peripheral nerve.
Collagen
Protein found in skin and connective tissues.
Comedo (pl. comedones)
A sebum plug that partially blocks the pore; a blackhead. If the pore becomes completely blocked, a whitehead forms.
Cuticle
Small band of skin at the base of a nail.
Dermabrasion
Treatment for removal of superficial scars or wrinkles on the skin using sandpaper-like material.
Dermatologist
Specialist in the study (diagnosis and treatment) of skin disorders.
Dermatophytosis
Fungal infection of the skin.
Dermatoplasty
Surgical repair of the skin.
Dermis
Middle layer of the skin.
Diaphoresis
Profuse sweating.
Eccrine sweat gland
Water-producing exocrine gland in the skin.
Electrocautery
Use of a needle or snare heated by electric current to destroy or burn tissue (removal of warts, polyps).
Epidermis
Outer layer of the skin.
Epidermolysis
Loosening of outer layer of the skin with formation of large blisters (bullae).
Epithelium
Layer of skin cells covering the outer and inner surfaces of the body.
Erythema
Condition of redness of the skin.
Erythematous
Pertaining to redness of the skin.
Hair follicle
Tubular sac that holds the hair fiber.
Ichthyosis
Hereditary condition in which the skin resembles fish scales and is dry, rough, and scaly.
Integumentary system
Skin and its accessory organs (hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands).
Keratin
Hard protein found in hair, nails, and the epidermis layer of skin.
Keratosis
Excessive development of hard, keratinized tissue on the skin.
Leukoderma
Areas of skin that lose their pigment and become white; vitiligo.
Leukoplakia
White plaques on mucous membranes and surfaces of the body.
Lipocyte
Fat cell.
Lipoma
Benign tumor of fatty tissue.
Liposuction
Removal of adipose (fatty) tissue with a suction pump device.
Lunula
Semicircular white arch near the root of the nail.
Melanin
Black pigment produced by melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis.
Melanocyte
Cell in the basal layer of the epidermis that produces melanin.
Mycosis
Any disease caused by a fungus.
Onychomycosis
Fungal infection of a nail.
Onycholysis
Separation of the nail plate from the nail bed in fungal infections or after trauma.
Paronychia
Inflammation and swelling of the skin folds around a nail.
Paronychium
Soft tissue surrounding the nail border.
Pilosebaceous
Pertaining to hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
Pyoderma
Skin disease with formation of pus.
Rhytidectomy
Plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging.
Sebaceous gland
Oil gland in the dermis layer of the skin.
Seborrhea
Condition marked by excessive secretion from sebaceous glands.
Seborrheic dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin with excessive secretion from sebaceous glands.
Sebum
Oily secretion from sebaceous glands in the skin.
Squamous epithelium
Flat, scale-like layer of cells in the epidermis or outer layer of the skin.
Steatoma
Collection of sebum in a cyst or sac-like formation.
Stratified
Arranged in layers.
Stratum (pl. strata)
A layer.
Stratum corneum
Outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of flattened, keratinized cells.
Subcutaneous layer
Pertaining to the third layer of the skin, under the epidermis and dermis (cutaneous layers). The subcutaneous layer contains fatty tissue.
Subungual
Pertaining to under a nail.
Trichomycosis
Fungal infection of hair, especially in the area under the arm (axilla).
Xanthoma
Soft, yellowish, round nodule found on the eyelids; xanthelasma.
Xeroderma
Dry skin.
Abscess
A cavity containing pus surrounded by inflamed tissue; usually the result of localized infection.
Acne
Chronic papular and pustular eruption of the skin with increased production of sebum.
Actinic keratosis
Thickened area of the epidermis associated with aging and skin damage due to sun exposure.
Basal cell carcinoma
Skin cancer arising from cells in the basal layer of the epidermis.
Bulla (pl. bullae)
Large blister.
Callus
Hard, thickened area of skin occurring in areas of the body exposed to friction or pressure.
Cellulitis
Diffuse, acute inflammatory infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain and swelling.
Cicatrix
Scar tissue.
Crust
Collection on the skin of dried sebum and cellular debris; scab.
Curettage
Scraping of material from the skin or from the wall of a cavity.
Cyst
Thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.
Decubitus ulcer
Inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony part of the body; pressure ulcer; bedsore.
Dysplastic nevi
Numerous abnormal moles with irregular borders, indistinct margins, and mixed coloration; often precursors of malignant melanomas.
Ecchymosis (pl. ecchymoses)
Bleeding into the skin; bruise.
Eczema
Chronic dermatitis of unknown etiology, marked by redness, blisters, scales, and scabs.
Electrodesiccation
Destruction of tissue by burning with an electric spark.
Erosion
Wearing away or loss of epidermis.
Exanthematous viral disease
Rash (exanthem) of skin due to viral infection; measles (rubeola) and chicken pox (varicella) are examples.
Fissure
Groove or crack-like sore.
Fungal tests
Scrapings from skin lesions are sent to a laboratory for culture and microscopic examination for evidence of fungal growth.
Gangrene
Death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply.
Impetigo
Inflammatory bacterial skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions.
Kaposi sarcoma
Malignant tumor of skin and blood vessels; often associated with AIDS. Dark blue-purple patches form on the skin.
Keloid
Enlarged scar on the skin.
Macule
Pigmented spot on the skin; freckle.
Malignant melanoma
Cancerous skin tumor often arising in pre-existing moles (nevi).
Mohs surgery
Microscopically controlled excision of skin cancers.
Nevus (pl. nevi)
Mole (pigmented lesion of the skin).
Nodule
Solid, round or oval, elevated skin lesion more than 1 cm in diameter.
Papule
Small, solid elevation of the skin, less than 1 cm in diameter.
Petechia (pl. petechiae)
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin.
Pilonidal cyst
Sac of hair in the sacral region (above the cleft in the buttocks).
Polyp
Mushroom-like benign growth extending on a stalk from the surface of a mucous membrane.
Pruritus
Itching.
Psoriasis
Chronic, recurrent dermatosis characterized by scaly, dull red or pink patches covered by silvery gray scales.
Purpura
Bleeding into the skin; ecchymoses and petechiae.
Purulent
Forming or containing pus.
Pustule
Small elevation of the skin containing pus.
Rubella
Exanthemous viral disease; German measles.
Rubeola
Exanthemous viral disease; measles.
Scabies
Contagious, parasitic infection of the skin with intense pruritus (itching).
Scleroderma
Chronic and progressive disease of the skin with hardening and shrinking of connective tissue.
Sebaceous cyst
Sac-like cavity filled with a collection of yellowish, cheesy sebum and epithelial debris.
Skin biopsy
Procedure to remove a suspected malignant lesion and send it to pathology laboratory for microscopic examination.
Skin test
Reaction of the body to a substance by observing the results of injecting the substance intradermally or applying it topically to the skin.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Skin cancer that develops from squamous epithelium.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in the skin, of joints, and of internal organs.
Tinea
Fungal infection of the skin; tinea corporis (ringworm) and tinea pedis (athlete's foot) are examples.
Ulcer
Open sore on the skin or mucous membranes of the body.
Urticaria
Acute allergic reaction in which red, round, elevated swollen areas called wheals appear on the skin. Pruritus (itching) may be intense.
Varicella
Exanthamous viral disease marked by itchy red rash that develops into blisters and pustules and then scabs; chicken pox.
Verruca (pl. verrucae)
Small benign growth (wart) in the skin; caused by a virus.
Vesicle
Small blister, containing clear fluid, on the skin.
Vitiligo
Patches of white, unpigmented skin surrounded by areas of normal skin; leukoderma.
Wheal
Round elevation in the skin with a pale, whitish area surrounded by redness; hives.