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144 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 17

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Accommodation
Normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near.
Amblyopia
Reduced vision (poor eyesight).
Anisocoria
Inequality in the size of pupils.
Anterior chamber
Space behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris; contains aqueous humor.
Aphakia
Absence of the lens of the eye.
Aqueous humor
Fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber of the eye.
Astigmatism
Abnormal curvature of the eyeball so that rays of light are not focused on a single point on the retina.
Auditory nerve fibers
These carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex).
Biconvex
Having two sides that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly like part of a sphere. The lens of the eye is biconvex.
Blepharitis
Inflammation of an eyelid.
Blepharoptosis
Prolapse of the upper eyelid caused by abnormalities of the eyelid muscle or by nerve damage.
Cataract
Clouding or loss of transparency of the lens of the eye.
Chalazion
Small, hard mass (granuloma) on the eyelid.
Choroid
Middle, vascular layer of the eye.
Ciliary body
Structure on each side of the lens that connects the choroid and iris; contains muscles that control the shape of the lens.
Cone
Photoreceptor cell in the retina; responsible for color and central vision.
Conjunctiva
Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball.
Conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
Cornea
Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball.
Corneal abrasion
Rubbing off of a part of the outer layer of the cornea.
Corneoscleral
Pertaining to the cornea and sclera, which is the white of the eye.
Cycloplegic
Paralysis of the muscles of the ciliary body.
Dacryoadenitis
Inflammation of tear glands.
Diabetic retinopathy
Disease of the retina due to long-term effects of diabetes.
Diplopia
Double vision.
Enucleation
Removal of the eyeball from the orbit of the eye.
Esotropia
Turning inward of one or both pupils; cross-eyes.
Exotropia
Turning to the side or outward of one or both pupils.
Fluorescein angiography
Process of recording (viewing and photographing) the circulation of a fluorescein dye through the blood vessels of the retina.
Fovea centralis
Tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision.
Fundus of the eye
Large, posterior inner part of the eye that is visualized with an ophthalmoscope.
Glaucoma
Fluid accumulation in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye causing increased pressure and damage to the retina.
Hemianopsia
Absence of vision for one half, right or left, of an individual's field of vision.
Hordeolum
Inflammation of an oil-secreting gland in the eyelid; stye.
Hyperopia
Farsightedness; light rays are focused beyond, instead of directly on the retina.
Hypertensive retinopathy
Disease of the retina due to high blood pressure.
Intraocular
Pertaining to within the eye.
Iridectomy
Removal of a portion of the iris.
Iridic
Pertaining to the iris.
Iris
Colored, pigmented portion of the eye, surrounding the pupil.
Iritis
Inflammation of the iris of the eye.
Keratitis
Inflammation of the cornea.
Keratoplasty
Surgical repair of the cornea; corneal transplant.
Lacrimal
Pertaining to tears.
Lacrimation
Production of tears.
Laser photocoagulation
Use of a laser to seal retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels.
Lens
Transparent biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye.
Macula
Yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains the fovea centralis, the area of clearest and central vision.
Macular degeneration
Deterioration of the macula of the retina and producing a loss of central vision.
Miosis
Contraction of the pupil of the eye.
Miotic
Drug that causes the pupil of the eye to contract.
Mydriasis
Widening of the pupil of the eye.
Myopia
Nearsightedness; vision for near objects is better than for far.
Nyctalopia
Night blindness or difficult, poor vision at night.
Nystagmus
Repetitive, rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
Ophthalmic
Pertaining to the eye.
Ophthalmologist
Medical doctor specializing in the diseases of the eye.
Ophthalmoplegia
Paralysis of muscles that move the eyeball.
Ophthalmoscopy
Visual examination of the interior of the eye.
Optic chiasm
Point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain.
Optic disc
Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina.
Optician
Non-medical professional trained in grinding lenses and fitting eyeglasses.
Optic nerve
Cranial nerve that carries impulses from the rod and cone cells of the retina to the cerebral cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain.
Optometrist
Non-medical professional trained to examine and measure the eye to prescribe and fit eyeglasses and contact lenses.
Palpebral
Pertaining to an eyelid.
Papilledema
Swelling of the optic disc; associated with increased pressure within the eye.
Phacoemulsification
Lens of the eye is extracted (cataract removal) using ultrasonic vibrations.
Photophobia
Sensitivity to light.
Presbyopia
Impairment of vision associated with middle or older age.
Pupil
Dark, central portion of the eye.
Pupillary
Pertaining to the pupil of the eye.
Refraction
Bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring light rays into focus on the retina.
Retina
Sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye.
Retinal detachment
Separation of the two layers of the retina from each other.
Retinitis pigmentosa
Inflammation of the retina with pigmentation and progressive scarring of tissue.
Rod
Photoreceptor retinal cell; essential for seeing objects in low light and for peripheral vision.
Sclera
White portion of the eyeball.
Scleral buckle
Procedure to suture a band of silicone on the sclera directly over a detached portion of the retina.
Scleritis
Inflammation of the sclera.
Scotoma
Blind spot in the field of vision.
Slit-lamp microscopy
Examination of ocular (eye) structures using a slit lamp and microscope.
Strabismus
Abnormal deviation of the pupils; esotropia or exotropia are examples.
Thalamus
Relay center in the brain through which optic nerve fibers pass on their way to the cerebral cortex.
Tonometry
Measurement of tension and pressure within the eye; glaucoma test.
Uveitis
Inflammation of the uvea, which is the vascular layer of the eye (including the iris, choroids, and ciliary body).
Visual acuity test
Measurement of clearness of vision; assessed by reading letters of decreasing size on an eye chart.
Visual field test
Measurement of the area in front of the eye in any part of which an object is seen without moving the eye.
Vitrectomy
Removal of vitreous humor.
Vitreous humor
Soft, jelly-like material that fills the inner vitreous chamber of the eye.
Xerophthalmia
Condition of excessive dryness of the eye.
Acoustic
Pertaining to hearing.
Acoustic neuroma
Benign tumor arising from the acoustic nerve.
Audiogram
Record of hearing using an audiometer.
Audiometer
Instrument to measure or test hearing.
Audiometry
Process of testing hearing.
Auditory canal
Channel leading from the ear flap to the eardrum.
Auditory meatus
Opening of the auditory canal to the outside of the body.
Auditory tube
Channel between the middle ear and the throat; eustachian tube.
Aural
Pertaining to the ear.
Auricle
Flap of the ear; pinna.
Cerumen
Waxy substance secreted by the ear; ear wax.
Cholesteatoma
Middle ear mass of cellular debris and cholesterol crystals.
Cochlea
Snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells.
Cochlear
Pertaining to the cochlea.
Deafness
Loss of the ability to hear.
Ear thermometry
Measurement of the temperature of the tympanic membrane by detection of infrared radiation from the eardrum.
Endolymph
Fluid within the labyrinth (canals) of the inner ear; conducts sound waves.
Eustachian tube
Channel between the middle ear and the throat; auditory tube.
Hyperacusis
Excessive sensitivity to sounds.
Incus
Small anvil-shaped bone (ossicle) in the middle ear; second ossicle.
Labyrinth
Maze-like series of canals of the inner ear; cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals.
Macrotia
Abnormally large ears.
Malleus
Hammer-shaped, small bone (ossicle) in the middle ear.
Mastoiditis
Inflammation and infection of the mastoid process just behind the ear.
Ménière disease
Disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph (fluid) pressure.
Microtia
Abnormally small ears.
Myringitis
Inflammation of the eardrum.
Myringotomy
Incision of the eardrum.
Ossicle
Small bone; malleus, incus, or stapes of the middle ear.
Ossiculoplasty
Surgical repair of an ossicle (small bone) of the middle ear.
Otic
Pertaining the ear.
Otolaryngologist
Specialist (surgeon) in ear, nose and throat disorders.
Otomycosis
Fungal infection of the ear.
Otopyorrhea
Discharge of pus from the ear.
Otosclerosis
Overgrowth and hardening of bony tissue in the labyrinth (inner ear).
Otoscopy
Visual examination of the ear using an otoscope.
Oval window
Membrane between the middle and inner ears.
Perilymph
Fluid contained in the labyrinth (canals of the inner ear).
Pinna
Outer ear flap; auricle.
Postauricular
Pertaining to behind the ear.
Presbycusis
Progressive loss of hearing, occurring in middle and older age.
Salpingopharyngeal
Pertaining to the eustachian tube and the throat.
Semicircular canals
Passageways in the inner ear that are associated with maintaining equilibrium.
Serous otitis media
Non-infectious inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of clear fluid.
Stapedectomy
Removal of the stapes (third middle ear bone).
Stapes
Small, stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear; third ossicle.
Suppurative otitis media
Infectious inflammation of the middle ear with pus formation.
Tinnitus
Ringing, buzzing or roaring sound in the ear.
Tuning fork tests
Measure bone and air conduction of sound through the ear.
Tympanic membrane
Membrane between the outer and middle ear; eardrum.
Tympanoplasty
Surgical repair of the eardrum.
Vertigo
Abnormal sensation of moving in space or having objects move about you in space.
Vestibule
Central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting the cochlea and semicircular canals.
Vestibulocochlear
Pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea.