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113 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 18

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Adenectomy
Removal of a gland.
Adenohypophysis
Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Adrenal cortex
Outer section of each adrenal gland.
Adrenalectomy
Removal of an adrenal gland.
Adrenaline
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine.
Adrenal medulla
Inner section of each adrenal gland.
Adrenocorticotropic
Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.
Adrenocorticotropin
Adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH.
Adrenopathy
Disease of the adrenal glands.
Aldosterone
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance.
Androgen
Male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics.
Antidiuretic hormone
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.
Calcitonin
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers calcium levels in the blood.
Catecholamines
Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example.
Corticosteroid
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples.
Cortisol
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.
Electrolyte
Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).
Endocrinologist
Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.
Epinephrine
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Estradiol
Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.
Estrogen
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.
Estrogenic
Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.
Euthyroid
Normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Fasting blood sugar
Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.
Follicle-stimulating
Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland;
hormone
stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells.
Glucagon
Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Glucocorticoid
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.
Glycemic
Pertaining to blood sugar.
Glycogen
Animal starch; glycogen is broken down (glycogenolysis) to produce sugar (glucose).
Glycosuria
Sugar in urine.
Gonadotropin
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.
Growth hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.
Homeostasis
Tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability.
Hormonal
Pertaining to a hormone.
Hormone
Chemical secreted by an endocrine gland.
Hypercalcemia
High levels of calcium in the bloodstream; often due to hyperparathyroidism.
Hypercalciuria
High levels of calcium in urine.
Hyperglycemia
High levels of sugar in the blood.
Hyperthyroidism
Increased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
Hypocalcemia
Low levels of calcium in the blood.
Hypoglycemia
Low levels of sugar in the blood.
Hypogonadism
Deficient functioning of the gonads (ovaries or testes).
Hypoinsulinism
Deficient production of insulin (pancreatic hormone).
Hypokalemia
Low levels of potassium in the blood.
Hyponatremia
Low levels of sodium in the blood.
Hypophysectomy
Removal of the pituitary gland.
Hypophysis
Pituitary gland.
Hypopituitarism
Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
Insulin
Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.
Luteinizing hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.
Mineralocorticoid
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
Neurohypophysis
Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.
Norepinephrine
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.
Oxytocin
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
Pancreas
Endocrine (islet cells) and exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind the stomach.
Pancreatectomy
Excision of the pancreas.
Parathormone
Secreted by the parathyroid glands; regulates calcium in the blood.
Parathyroidectomy
Removal of parathyroid glands.
Parathyroid glands
Four small endocrine glands on the posterior side of the thyroid gland.
Pineal gland
Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin.
Pituitary gland
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.
Polydipsia
Excessive thirst.
Progesterone
Hormone secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
Prolactin
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.
Receptor
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.
Sella turcica
Cavity in the base of the skull; contains the pituitary gland.
Somatotropin
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
Steroid
Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).
Sympathomimetic
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.
Target tissue
Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
Testosterone
Hormone secreted by the testes.
Tetraiodothyronine
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid gland
Endocrine gland in the neck on either side of the trachea.
Thyroiditis
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Thyrotropin
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.
Thyroxine
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland to increase body metabolism (T4).
Triiodothyronine
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
Vasopressin
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
Acromegaly
Enlargement of extremities due to increased secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Addison disease
Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal virilism
Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.
Cretinism
Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Cushing syndrome
Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.
Diabetes insipidus
Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.
Diabetes mellitus
Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
Dwarfism
Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Endemic goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the diet.
Exophthalmometry
Measurement of eyeball protrusion.
Exophthalmos
Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); symptom of hyperthyroidism.
Gastroparesis
Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.
Gigantism
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
Glucose tolerance test
Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Graves disease
Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.
Hirsutism
Excessive hair growth.
Hyperinsulinism
Increased secretion of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas.
Hyperparathyroidism
Increased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Hypoparathyroidism
Decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Hypothyroidism
Decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
Ketoacidosis
High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.
Myxedema
Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults.
Nodular goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.
Panhypopituitarism
Deficiency of all pituitary gland hormones.
Pheochromocytoma
Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).
Radioactive iodine uptake
Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.
Tetany
Constant muscle contractions; associated with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism.
Thyroid carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid function tests
Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.
Thyroid scan
Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.
Thyrotoxicosis
Hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).