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103 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 22

STUDY
PLAY
Affect
External expression of emotion; emotional response.
Agoraphobia
Fear of leaving home or leaving a safe place.
Amnesia
Loss of memory.
Amphetamines
Central nervous system stimulants.
Anorexia nervosa
Eating disorder of excessive dieting and refusal to maintain a normal body weight.
Antisocial personality
Characterized by lack of loyalty or concern for others and lack of moral standards.
Anxiety disorders
Characterized by unpleasant tensions, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic distress disorder.
Anxiolytic
Drug that relieves anxiety and produces a relaxing effect.
Apathy
Absence of emotions; lack of interest or emotional involvement.
Asperger syndrome
A pervasive developmental disorder characterized by delays in socialization and communication skills; often considered a less severe type of autism.
Atypical antipsychotics
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses (psychoses).
Autism
Severe lack of responsiveness to others, preoccupation with inner thoughts, withdrawal and retarded language development.
Autistic thought
Preoccupation with self-centered, illogical ideas and fantasies that exclude the external world.
Benzodiazepines
Drugs used to treat anxiety and panic attacks.
Bipolar disorder
Mood disorder with alternating periods of mania and depression.
Borderline personality
Instability in interpersonal relationships and sense of self; alternating involvement with and rejection of people.
Bulimia nervosa
Eating disorder marked by binge eating followed by vomiting, purging (defecation), and depression.
Cannabis
Active substance in marijuana; THC.
Catatonic stupor
A type of schizophrenia marked by inability to move or react to the environment.
Claustrophobia
Fear of closed-in places.
Cognitive behavior therapy
Changing behavior patterns and responses by training and repetition and learning how thinking patterns cause symptoms, such as anger, anxiety and depression.
Compulsion
Uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly.
Conversion disorder
A physical symptom appears with no organic basis and as a result of anxiety and inner conflict.
Cyclothymia
Patient experiences alternating states of depression and exhilaration; mild form of bipolar disorder.
Defense mechanism
Unconscious technique (coping mechanism) that a person uses to resolve or conceal conflicts and anxiety.
Delirium
Confusion in thinking; faulty perceptions and irrational behavior.
Delirium tremens
Confusion in thinking, anxiety, tremors, and sweating occurring with withdrawal from excessive and habitual use of alcohol.
Delusion
Fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence.
Dementia
Loss of higher mental functioning, including memory, judgment, and reasoning.
Depression
Major mood disorder marked by chronic and excessive sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, and discouragement.
Dissociative disorder
Chronic or sudden disturbance of memory, identity, or consciousness; examples are multiple-personality disorder and psychogenic amnesia.
Dysphoria
Sadness, hopelessness, and depressive mood; feeling "low."
Dysthymia
Depressive episodes, but not of the same intensity or duration as major depression.
Ego
Central, coordinating branch of the personality.
Electroconvulsive therapy
Electric current produces a convulsive seizure to treat mood disorders (depression or the depressive phase of bipolar disorder); used in patients who are resistant to drug therapy or when rapid response is needed.
Euphoria
Exaggerated feeling of well-being; elevated mood, "high."
Exhibitionism
Compulsive need to expose one's body, particularly the genitals, to an unsuspecting stranger.
Family therapy
Treatment of an entire family to resolve and understand their conflicts and problems.
Fetishism
Use of non-living objects, such as articles of clothing, as substitutes for a human sexual love object.
Free association
Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient is encouraged to reveal thoughts one after another without censorship.
Fugue
Flight from customary surroundings; dissociate disorder.
Gender-identity disorder
Strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex.
Group therapy
Patients with similar problems gain insight into their personalities through discussion and interaction together.
Hallucination
False or unreal sensory perception; hearing voices and seeing things.
Hallucinogen
Substance that produces hallucinations.
Histrionic personality
Highly emotional, immature, and dependent personality type with irrational outbursts, tantrums and flamboyant, theatrical behavior.
Hypnosis
Induction of a trance-like state to consciousness in a patient to increase the pace of psychotherapy.
Hypochondriasis
Exaggerated concern about one's health.
Hypomania
Elevated excitement that is of lesser intensity than mania.
Id
Major unconscious part of the personality; instinctual drives and desires.
Insight-oriented therapy
Face to face discussion of life problems and feelings to increase understanding of thoughts and behavior patterns; psychodynamic therapy.
Kleptomania
Strong impulse to steal, often with little actual desire for the stolen item.
Labile
Unstable; undergoing rapid emotional change.
Lithium
Drug used to treat the manic episodes in bipolar disorder.
Mania
State of excessive excitability, hyperactive elation and agitation.
Mental
Pertaining to the mind.
Mood disorders
Prolonged emotion dominates a person's life; bipolar and depressive disorders.
Mutism
Non-reactive state; stupor.
Narcissistic personality
Characterized by grandiose sense of self-importance or preoccupation with fantasies of success or power; self-love without empathy for others.
Neuroleptic drug
Antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychoses such as schizophrenia and severe depression; examples are atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole (Abilify) and olanzapine (Zyprexa).
Neurosis
Repressed conflicts lead to mental symptoms such as anxiety and fears that disturb ability to function; less serious mental disorder than a psychosis.
Obsession
An involuntary, persistent idea or emotion.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Anxiety disorder involving recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions) that dominate a patient's life.
Opioid
Drug derived from opium. Examples are cocaine, morphine, and heroin.
Paranoia
Overly suspicious system of thinking with fixed delusions that one is being harassed, persecuted or unfairly treated.
Paranoid personality
Characterized by recurrent delusions of persecution and jealousy with suspicion and mistrust of other people; quick to take offense.
Paraphilia
Recurrent, intense sexual urge; fantasy or behavior that involves unusual objects, activities and situations.
Pedophilia
Need for sexual gratification with a child.
Personality disorder
Established, lifelong pattern marked by inflexibility and impairment of social functioning.
Phenothiazines
Drugs used to treat serious mental illnesses or psychoses. They modify psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) and behavior.
Phobia
Irrational fear of an object or an situation; claustrophobia (closed spaces), agoraphobia (leaving home or a safe place) and acrophobia (heights) are examples.
Play therapy
A child, through play, uses toys to express conflicts and feelings that he or she is unable to communicate in a direct manner.
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Anxiety disorder that follows a traumatic incident; symptoms such as intense fear, helplessness, insomnia, nightmares and less responsiveness to the external world.
Projective test
Diagnostic personality test using unstructured stimuli (inkblots, pictures, incomplete sentences) to evoke responses that reflect aspects of an individual's personality.
Psychiatrist
Physician who treats the mind and mental disorders.
Psychiatry
Treatment of the mind and mental disorders.
Psychoanalysis
Form of psychotherapy in which the patient explores his or her unconscious emotions and past to understand and change current behavior and feelings.
Psychodrama
A group therapy in which a patient expresses feelings by acting out roles with other patients.
Psychogenic
Pertaining to produced within the mind, having emotional and psychologic origin, rather than a physical cause.
Psychologist
Individual (Ph.D or Ed.D) specializing in mental processes and how the brain functions in health and disease; treats patients with psychotherapy, but cannot prescribe drugs.
Psychopharmacology
Treatment of psychiatric disorders with drugs.
Psychosis
Loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations.
Psychosomatic
Pertaining to the inter-relationship of the mind (psych/o) and body (somat/o).
Psychotherapy
Treatment of the mind.
Pyromania
Strong impulse (obsessive urge) to set objects on fire.
Reality testing
Ability to perceive fact from fantasy.
Repression
Defense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and impulses are automatically pushed into the unconscious.
Schizoid personality
Emotionally cold and aloof, as if split off from other people; indifferent to praise or criticism or to the feelings of others.
Schizophrenia
Psychosis marked by withdrawal from reality into an inner world of disorganized thinking and conflict.
Sedatives
Drugs that lessen anxiety.
Sexual disorders
Conditions involving sexual use of nonhuman objects and acts involving suffering, humiliation, and non-consenting partners. Disorders also include sexual dysfunctions such as inhibition of sexual desire or changes in sexual responses.
Sexual masochism
Sexual gratification gained by being mutilated, beaten, or bound or otherwise made to suffer by another person.
Sexual sadism
Sexual gratification gained by inflicting physical or psychologic pain or harm on others.
Somatoform disorders
Conditions in which the patient has physical or bodily symptoms that cannot be explained by any actual physical illness.
Substance-related disorders
Regular overuse of psychoactive substances (alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioids, sedatives), which can affect the central nervous system.
Superego
Internalized conscious and judgmental and moral part of the mind.
Supportive psychotherapy
Treatment that involves offering encouragement, support, and hope to patients facing difficult life transitions and events.
Tolerance
Development of insensitivity to a drug; increasing doses of a drug are needed to produce a desired effect.
Transference
Process by which a patient relates to a therapist as though the therapist were a prominent childhood figure.
Transvestic fetishism
Cross-dressing by a male in women's attire.
Tricyclic antidepressants
Group of drugs used to treat severe depression.
Voyerism
Abnormal desire to look at sexual organs or watch sexual acts.
Xenophobia
Fear of strangers.