-The art of Paul Cézanne can be characterized as having as academic, yet has bright palettes, broken brushwork, and are mostly landscape paintings. He controls his paint, making deliberate brushstrokes, and was committed to form rather than light.
-He built upon the work of Impressionist artists by making it something "solid and durable, like the art of museums" by structuring his paintings around a methodical approach he developed, so that drawing and modeling were merged into a single process.
-The aspects of his art that are evident in the work of Cubist artists, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, are his jagged, geometrical lines and classic yellow and orange tones.
-"Modernism" in art can characterized as "art being made for art's sake." It broke away from forms of traditional and classic art in a new, avant-garde fashion. Modern art is often "subversive and intellectual demanding" and features radical political, visual, and social ideas. It features 20th century movements such as fauvism, surrealism, dada, Italian futurism, German and Abstract expressionism, pop art, cubism, and so on.
-The interests modern artists share are the exploration of new ways to see the world, new ways to create a work of art, the use variety of colors, and incorporate/reflect elements from modern life.
-The early 20th century was a period of such intense creative development due to rapid social, political, scientific, technological, and intellectual developments taking place in such a short period of time on an unprecedented scale. These rapid and often radical changes reflect art within the modern art period.
-The scientific, technological, and intellectual developments that motivated the creation of so many different forms of visual expression began in 1895, with the turn of the 20th century. During this year, motion pictures were born into existence, the telegram and later, the radio, were invented, the discovering of x-rays, and the first publications from Freud occurred. Further radical changes included the advancement of photography, Industrial Revolution, WWI and WWII.
-Picasso's Guernica functions as a social protest in the way that it represents a broken world during the Spanish Civil War in 1937, after Nationalist-supporting German bombers attacked Guernica, killing and wounding 1,600 civilians. Horrified after the bombing, Picasso set to represent the massacred victims within this painting for the Spanish Pavilion at the 1938 Paris Exposition. It was a culture war face on behalf of Spain against Nazi Germany. There are recognizable, yet broken apart elements. It also includes a limited color palette, displaying the seriousness, anguish, and bleakness held in the minds of the people during this era. It is a scene of violence, chaos, brutality, and suffering. -Abstract Expressionism is an art movement that emerged in New York, where loosely affiliated artists portrayed their personal, profound alienation following WWII through expressionist artwork. Artists were deeply influenced by psychoanalyst Carl Jung, inspiring them to create universal symbolic forms.
-The visual and ideological interests Abstract Expressionists share are large scale artwork, titles used to drive the audience toward a certain viewpoint, artistic freedom, freedom from ideology (not tied to artistic tradition, pro-democracy/pro-capitalism ideology).
*Abstract: Root in known visual world, items/objects/people depicted stretched, broken, etc.
*Non-Representational: No reality- only the reality of form.
-Pop Art is an art style that emerged in the 1950's, where a focus was placed onto the explosion of visual culture, where artists critiqued and sometimes, seemingly glorified the fiction and superficiality of the perfect home/person. Artists mined fields of commercial imagery to use in artwork, and looked to comics, ads, home goods commodities, and photos for inspiration/to use as ready-made objects.
-Pop Art engages with the commodity culture in two main ways: it seems to hold popular and consumer culture in reverence (as seen in the glorification of a simple soup can), but could be seen as critique on consumer culture through its various depictions. It comes from a background where manufacturing began to produce more and more goods post-WWII, advertising became graphic, and companies that would advertise had easy to identify logos, creating a huge commodity culture reflected within Pop Art. Various artists challenged fine art ideals in this realm of new mass media. In Andy Warhol's work, art becomes a commodity as seen in his Campbell Soup paintings. Pop "comic book" art by Roy Lichtchenstein, appears to have been made by a machine (with dots, bubble text and linework), therefore mass produced/made to be a commodity.
-Like DADA and NEO-DADA, Pop art drew closer to life, but differs as it depicts life as it had already been transformed into images by advertising and media.