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Terms in this set (71)
compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen
compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers - building blocks
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers - large compounds
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Broken down to glucose to provide energy - used as an energy source
Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrates
The building blocks of carbohydrates that are single-sugared.
Examples of monosaccharides
glucose and fructose
When two simple sugars are joined together.
examples of disaccharides
maltose and sucrose
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides - chain molecule
examples of polysaccharides
starch, glycogen, cellulose
Building blocks of carbohydrates
Suffix sugars end in
Uses of carbohydrates
Energy source and structure
glucose molecules linked together (energy storage for plants)
glucose molecules linked together (energy storage for animals)
major component of cell wall, made from linked glucose molecules
Containments of Carbohydrates
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
6 major elements of life
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
4 molecules of life
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Store energy. Also important structural component of cell membranes.
Components of fats and oils
Fats and oils are made of fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
long hydrocarbon chains ending in a carboxyl group
A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.
saturated fatty acid
chains consisting entirely of carbons that are each bonded to two hydrogen atoms - single bond
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid containing one or more carbon atoms having on three neighboring atoms - double bond
Phospholipids are one glycerol molecule and two fatty acids
Uses of lipids
Energy and structure
All cell membranes are made of lipids
more energy can be stored in lipids than in carbohydrates
Chains of amino acids - used to go through life processes.
building blocks of proteins
affect how amino acids interact with one another and how protein interacts with other molecules
bonds between amino acids
Proteins are also called...
All proteins have...
Nucleic Acids Elements
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
Nucleic Acids always have...
Nucleic acids are organic compounds that store genetics
Nucleic Acids are composed of...
Nucleotides are composed of...
5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins.
Proteins that speed up chemical reactions - large and complex
Although all enzymes are proteins...
All proteins are NOT enzymes
Enzymes end in the suffix
Enzymes retain their...
Enzymes tend to work best at...
certain pH levels and temperatures
determine how acidic or basic a solution is
The part of an enzyme where the chemical reaction occurs
Ways enzymes can work
Enzymes can either work to synthesis a large molecule from smaller compounds or they can work to break down large molecules.
Enzymes_______ activation energy
When Enzymes are affected by temperature their speed...
In a visual, the reaction site in generally located...
between two arrows - towards middle
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
Enzymes only work with specific substrates. This model is called the...
Lock and key model (mostly interchangeable with "enzyme-substrate interaction")
When an enzyme bonds to a substrate it is called:
an enzyme-substrate complex
The process of when the enzyme is becoming denatured and losing its shape.
When a enzyme gets too hot it will loose its shape, so it won't be able to combine with substrates.
Lipids contain what elements?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Carbohydrates contain what elements?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Protein contains what elements?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
nucleic acids contain what elements?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Cell Division, Reproduction, and Development
Biology: Regents Review
The LEGO of Life
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