History Midterm Abell
Terms in this set (96)
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia. It was First led by John Smith, then led by john rolfe after Smith left
a preparation of the nicotine-rich leaves of an American plant, which are cured by a process of drying and fermentation for smoking or chewing. It was brought to Jamestown by John Rolfe.
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
land offered to anyone willing to cross the Atlantic and settle in America. It helped populate the colonies particularly Jamestown
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands. The ship they took to settle was called the Mayflower.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan
1. pay off all foreign and domestic debts 2. have a National Bank 3. have a protective tariff 4. have an excise tax
Reasons for French support during the Revolutionary War
1. The French Needed to pay debts. 2. The French wanted to get back at Britain
It lead Manufacturing and trade. There were Many cities with factories.
depended on agriculture, small farms and large plantations. slaves were main source of labor
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed. Was far superior to the AoC
government in which power is divided between the national, or federal, government and the states
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry. This was the document that ended the Revolutionary War
Who were the wealthiest and most powerful people in the South?
Plantation Owners were the wealthiest. They were able to make lots of money by selling crops
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution; major source of civil liberties; applies to states via selective incorporation doctrine; promised to Anti-Federalists to secure ratification of Constitution
Powers that are reserved in the constitution belong to which branch of government?
The legislative Branch
Checks and Balances
counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups. Example: the Executive branch can veto a bill from the senate.
Number of electors per state
Each state chooses electors, amounting in number to that state's combined total of senators and representatives.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
President appoints them, advisors to the president; is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Washington's reason for issuing a proclamation of neutrality
Didn't want to get involved with foreign affairs. He wanted to deal with the current us affairs
Washington Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
reasons for the beginning of the industrial revolution
Availability of labor, raw materials, and emergence of water power
Henry Clay's American System
1. Protective Tariffs 2. National Bank 3. Internal Improvements
How did the north attempt to ruin the southern economy during the civil war?
They engaged in total war. They burned down everything they marched past.
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
The British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
Fugitive Slave Act
(1850) a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
(FP) 1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
Soldiers who were not under the government as slaves. These former slaves were known as free men
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
Anti-slavery activists who demanded the immediate end of slavery. An example of this is William Lloyd Garrison who wrote a abolitionist paper called The Liberator
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Achievements of the Articles of Confederation
1. It secured recognition of American independence by European government.
2. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which defined the northwest territory and created a plan for its government and set up districts. Each district was required to have a school, which was controlled on the local level of government.
3. Gave Congress full power over the Northwest Ordinance.
4. Prohibited slaves in the Northwest Ordinance.
Failures of the Articles of Confederation
no executive, no strong central government, no judiciary, no power to tax, no authority to regulate commerce, amending of the articles-unanimous vote of member states
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Latitude line for Missouri compromise
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan
1. pay off all foreign and domestic debts 2. have a National Bank 3. have a protective tariff 4. have an excise tax
Jackson's Native American Policy
Said they were to be relocated west and put into their own reservations
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
A social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Allowed women to speak out about domestic abuse
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Lincoln's primary objective at the start of the war
It was to reunite the nation and start over
Worchester v GA
Supreme Court Case which ruled that the laws of Georgia had no force within the boundaries of the Cherokee territory and supported the Cherokees.
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US. Was purchased for about 15 million dollars
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
This is the phrase used to describe the general political principles embraced by Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson favored reducing the size and scope of the national government. Once in office, he announced conservative fiscal policies that reduced the public debt also supported simplicity, disliking especially the ceremonial aspects of the Federalist administrations. Jefferson articulated a clear vision of what type of society and citizenry he thought was best suited for protecting American virtue: an agrarian society in which all men were honest, hardworking, and responsible—promoted independence derived from self-sufficiency.
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Advantages of the North
a)larger population, b)most of the factories to make supplies, c)most of the railroads located in the north, d)strong Navy, e)more money, f)they had an established government
Advantages of the South
had more experienced military officers and were fighting on their own land among their own people
a planter who led a rebellion with one thousand other Virginians in 1676; the rebels were mostly frontiersmen forced toward the backcountry in search of fertile land
British general whose campaigns in the South led to his defeat at Yorktown
He was the royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Colonists resented his enforcement of the Navigation Acts and the attempt to abolish the colonial assembly.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
Head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy"
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Invented the cotton gin
Congressman who proposed the amendment that would have outlawed slavery from Mexican territories
Francis Cabot Lowell
American industrialist who developed the Lowell system, a mill system that included looms that could both weave thread and spin cloth. He hired young women to live and work in his mill
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
(1817-1821) and (1821-1825) The Missouri Compromise in 1821., the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point.
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico