1. The total amount of water on the Earth ____________ from year to year and the hydrologic cycle ________________.
A. stays about the same; moves it from one place to another place
B. increase; captures it from the incoming solar radiation
C. increases; gains water from the Earth's interior
D. decreases; moves it from one place to another place
E. decreases; loses water to the atmosphere
2. Most water in the atmosphere has evaporated from the ocean, and ______ rain falls back into the sea. About ________ % of the earth's total rain falls on land.
A. most; 10
B. most; 20
C. less; 55
D. less; 70
E. None of these. Most water in the atmosphere does not evaporate from the sea.
3. The hydrologic compartment that contains the greatest amount of fresh water is
B. the Great Lakes.
C. living organisms and biomass.
D. ice and snow.
E. clouds in the atmosphere.
4. The place where aquifers are most likely to be contaminated is at
A. artesian springs.
B. seeps and other outlets.
C. recharge zones.
D. all discharge and recharge areas.
E. the zone of aeration.
5. A country's renewable water supplies are generally made up of
A. surface runoff and infiltration into accessible aquifers.
B. seasonal flooding and infiltration into accessible aquifers.
C. seasonal flooding.
D. rivers running through the country.
E. water used from an aquifer.
6. Which of the following factors is the most important factor in determining whether a country is "water rich" or "water poor"?
A. population density
B. country size
C. humid climate
D. rivers running through the country
E. renewable water supplies
7. Withdrawal is the total amount of water
A. lost in transmission, due to evaporation or leakage.
B. taken from rivers, lakes, or aquifers.
C. used in manufacturing or agriculture.
D. altered or polluted in human activities.
E. lost due to chemical transformation because of human use.
8. In general, water use in poor countries is dominated by
A. agricultural use.
B. domestic needs.
C. industrial activities.
D. use as drinking water.
E. All of these are correct.
9. A method of increasing water supplies that has been successful, if expensive, is
A. desalinization by reverse osmosis.
B. cloud seeding.
C. towing icebergs by ship from polar regions.
D. altering the climate's convection currents.
E. None of these methods are successful.
10. Principal problems that have resulted from the construction of large dams include
A. evaporation and siltation.
B. leakage and weakening of bedrock.
C. mercury poisoning.
D. the relocation of people.
E. All of these are correct.
11. One of the consequences of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt is the
A. increase in the need for buying fertilizer.
B. increase in the occurrence of schistosomiasis.
C. decline in the Mediterranean fisheries.
D. Both increase in the occurrence of schistosomiasis and decline in the Mediterranean fisheries are consequences of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt.
E. All of these are consequences of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt.
12. The activity that uses the greatest share of U.S. household water is
B. drinking and cooking.
C. flushing the toilet.
D. washing clothes and dishes.
E. watering lawns.
13. Factories, sewage treatment plants, and oil wells are __________ sources of water pollution.
D. tertiary pollutant
14. _________ sources of water pollution are relatively easy to monitor and regulate while _____________ sources of water pollution are difficult to monitor and clean up.
A. Domestic; industrial
B. Primary; tertiary pollutant
C. Nonpoint; point
D. Tertiary pollutant; primary
E. Point; nonpoint
15. ____________ is to point source of water pollution as _____________ is to nonpoint source of water pollution.
A. Golf course runoff; atmospheric deposition
B. Golf course runoff; power plant effluent
C. Power plant effluent; golf course runoff
D. Atmospheric deposition; golf course runoff
E. Power plant effluent; underground coal mine drains
16. The water pollutant that most commonly threatens human health is
A. pathogenic organisms.
B. dissolved plant matter.
C. toxic and hazardous chemicals.
D. thermal pollution.
E. oxygen-demanding wastes.
17. Coliform bacteria populations are routinely monitored in drinking water supplies, swimming pools, and at beaches because these bacteria
A. are especially toxic to animals.
B. may mutate into severely pathogenic strains.
C. indicate the presence of feces in water.
D. usually live in pesticide-contaminated water.
E. are more difficult to find in water.
Use the following graph for the question.
Refer to: 10-1
18. On the graph of clean drinking water per person, each letter represents a country. Which of the following is most likely?
A. A is the United States; B is India.
B. B is the United States; A is India.
C. A is the United States; B is Canada.
D. B is India; A is China.
E. A is India; B is China
19. The main reason that surface water pollution has largely decreased in the United States since 1950 is
A. the Clean Water Act.
B. a series of epidemics that inspired action.
C. the discovery of newer technology that makes it cheaper not to pollute.
D. decreases in water withdrawal for industrial uses.
E. the emphasis in 1950 of watershed management.
20. Tertiary treatment of sewage produces water that is usable for
C. industrial activities.
D. watering livestock.
E. dumping into freshwater systems.
21. The city of Arcata, California, is notable because it designed a _________ to treat its sewage.
A. system of modern outhouses
B. fully modern, technologically advanced system
C. natural marsh
D. corporate sponsorship system
E. living machine
22. Best available economically achievable technology (BAT) standards are standards set for
A. nonpoint pollution.
B. toxic substances.
C. radioactive waste, specifically.
D. organic compounds.
E. all point sources.
23. Using bentonite slurries to stabilize liquids in porous substances is an example of
A. a containment method of remediation.
B. tertiary sewage treatment.
D. extraction techniques of remediation.
E. in vitro extraction techniques.