Terms in this set (23)
4 classes of macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
Elements in carbohydrates
C, H, O in a definite ratio
Elements in lipids
C, H, O not in a definite ratio
Elements in proteins (amino acids)
C, H, O, N
Elements in Nucleic Acids
C, H, O, N, P
molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches. Short-term energy storage
macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes. Long-term energy storage
macromolecule made of a chain of nucleotides; example: DNA and RNA. Stores genetic information and instructions for making proteins
Large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Made of amino acid monomers. Makes up hair and muscle.
Contains carbon. Examples include CH4 and C6H12O6.
a nucleic acid found in the nucleus of a cell, contains genetic information
An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins.
monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
Atoms in the food we eat ...
Atoms in the food we eat will last forever, even after the food goes through our digestive system.
Glucose molecules have energy...
located in high energy bonds between atoms in the molecule.
Three main types of organic molecules (macromolecules) listed on a nutrition label are...
Fat, Carbohydrates, and Proteins
are needed in our diet for brain function, absorption of certain vitamins, to insulate our bodies and keep us warm, and to protect or cushion vital organs.
Saturated Fatty Acids
Lipid molecules that have single bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. Carbon atoms are surrounded by hydrogen atoms. These molecules are solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Lipid molecules that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. These molecules are not totally surrounded by hydrogen. These molecules are liquid at room temperature.
Four types of Carbohydrates
Sugars, Starches, and fiber
Why are proteins important?
- Enzymes (speed up reactions)
- Cellular Construction Workers
- Cellular messengers
- Movement of muscles
- Structure (tissues)
- Hair and nails
- DNA is coded for proteins
i.e. When we are young, we have smooth and fair skin because our skin cells have a lot of collagen, but as we get older we lose those proteins, so we get wrinkles
List four examples of food high in protein.
Meat, cheese, eggs, milk, yogurt, soybeans, tofu,