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28 terms

Chemistry 521A - Chapter 22

Prentice Hall Chemistry
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Cracking
process by which hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller molecules
Petroleum
fossil fuel containing straight and branched chain alkanes
Distillation
process by which petroleum is separated into fractions
Lignite
Brown coal, consisting of about 50% carbon
Anthracite
Hard coal, which is high in carbon content
Alkynes
hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon triple bonds
Substituent
Group of atoms that takes the place of hydrogen in a parent hydrocarbon
cis configuration
Geometric isomer with substituted groups on the same side of the double bond
homologous series
series of compounds related by a constant increment of change
arene
another name for an aromatic hydrocarbon
stereoisomers
molecules that differ in the arrangement of atoms in space
saturated compounds
organic compounds that contain the maiximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom
cyclic hydrocarbons
organic compounds that contain hydrocarbon rings
resonance
when two or more equally valid structures can be drawn for a molecule
phenyl group
name given to a benzene ring when it is a substituent
aromatic compounds
group of hydrocarbons that contain a benzene ring or a ring with bonding like that of benzene
isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures
structural isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but the atoms are joined in a different order
asymmetric carbon
a carbon with four different groups attached
geometric isomers
isomers that differ in the concentration of groups around a double bond
trans configuration
configuration of the substituted groups on opposite sides of the double bond
optical isomers
pairs of molecules that differ only in the way four different groups are arranged around a central carbon atom
alkenes
contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond
unsaturated compounds
organic compounds that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds
straight chain alkanes
organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
branched chain alkanes
alkanes that contain one or more alkyl substituents
alkyl group
a hydrocarbon substituent
hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons that contain only single covalent bonds