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Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2, Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Glycolisis
Takes place outside of the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell; splitting of sugars, ~An anaerobic process which means that it doesn't require oxyge
Cellular Respiration
Process by which cells obtain energy from glucose, Chemical Reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 yields 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP,
Chloroplast
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food., An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Chlorophyl
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended, A clear thick fluid that fills the cell. Gives the cell shape, supports the organelles and dissolves substances for chemical reactions to occur.
Mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
ATP
A cellular form of energy that must be constantly regenerated from energy stored in your body and from the foods you eat., (adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
Autotroph
An organism that makes its own food. They are Producers.
Heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food. They are Consumers.
Cholorophyl
When chlorophyll absorbs light, energy is transferred to electrons in atoms of chlorophyll.
Stages of Photosynthesis
STAGE 1: Capturing the sun's energy
STAGE 2: Producing sugars (food)
Photosynthesis Stage 1
-Occurs in the leaves (in the chloroplasts)
-The chlorophyll in the chloroplasts absorbs the light
-Water in the chloroplasts is split into hydrogen and oxygen.
-The oxygen (O2) is given off as a waste product
-The hydrogen is used to make sugars/food (glucose) in stage 2.
Photosynthesis Stage 2
-Carbon dioxide (CO2) enters through small openings (stomata) on the undersides of leaves and moves into the chloroplasts.
-Cells use the hydrogen (H) (from the splitting of the water molecules in stage 1) and CO2 from the air to produce glucose (sugar/food
-Glucose (C6H12O6) is a product of this chemical reaction.
-Cells use the energy in glucose to carry out vital cell functions
Stomata
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
O2 or Oxygen
- is another product of photosynthesis. (Remember, this was formed during stage 1 when the water molecules were split apart and given off as a waste product!)
O2 in Photosynthesis
O2 exits the leaves through the openings (stomata) on its underside.
Glucose
C6H1206, A simple sugar that acts as an energy source for cells.
Glycolysis Stage 1
-Molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules
-Takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell
-Makes a small amount of energy (1 molecule of glucose is broken down to produce 2 molecules of ATP)
-Does NOT require oxygen
Krebs Cycle
-Occurs in the mitochondria ("powerhouses" of the cell)
-Requires oxygen
-The small molecules produced in stage 1 are broken down into even smaller molecules.
-Produces CO2, H2O, and releases a large amount of energy (produces 34 molecules of ATP).
Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic respiration: requires oxygen
Stage 2 of cellular respiration (Krebs Cycle)
Anaerobic Respiration
-Anaerobic respiration: does not require oxygen
-Stage 1 of cellular respiration (glycolysis)
-Fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation
-The breaking down of glucose without using oxygen, producing CO2, ethyl alcohol, and a small amount of energy
-Occurs in yeast and other single celled organisms
-Used in the bread and alcohol industry
-The CO2 creates gas pockets in bread dough, causing it to rise.
-The CO2 is the source of bubbles in alcoholic drinks
Lactic Acid Fermentation
-The breaking down of glucose without using oxygen, producing lactic acid and a small amount of energy
-When lactic acid builds up in your muscles, you feel pain, your muscles feel weak and sore.
-Also, used in dairy industry to make cheese & yogurt
Give an example of Alcoholic Fermentation
Used in the bread and alcohol industry
When an organism uses the energy of sunlight it is called what?
Photosynthesis
What do you call an organism that makes its own food?
Autotrophs
What is another name for Autotrophs?
Producers
What do you call an organism that gets its energy from food they eat?
Heterotrophs
True or False
Nearly all living things obtain energy either directly or indirectly from the energy of sunlight that is captured during Photosynthesis.
During Photosynthesis, plants and some organisms, absorb energy from the sun and use the energy to do what?
convert Carbon Dioxide and Water into Sugars and Oxygen.
Where does Photosynthesis take place?
in the Chloroplasts and the Mitochondria of the leaves of plants.
How many stages are there to Photosynthesis?
Two Stages
In which stage is the energy from the sun captured in the green pigment chlorophyll?
Stage One
Where is Chlorophyll located in the plant cell?
in the organelles known as Chloroplasts.
What actually happens in the Chloroplasts?
Water that entered the Chloroplasts is split into Hydrogen atoms and Oxygen atoms. The Oxygen is given off as waste product and the Hydrogen is used in the next stage.
How do Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide enter the plant cells?
through the small openings on the underside of leaves.
What happens in Stage Two?
The Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide that entered the cells combine to form sugars.
Where does the energy come from to power Stage Two?
It comes from energy produced in Stage One.
Do you need Oxygen in Lactic Acid Fermentation?
No Oxygen is needed.
Do you need Oxygen in Alcohol Fermentation?
No Oxygen is needed.
What do Mitochondria do?
They complete the breakdown of Glucose with O2.
Ecosystem
A group of interacting organisms and their natural environment
What do you call a community of organisms that live in a particular area, along with their nonliving environment?
An Ecosystem
Does the plant use some of the sugars produced?
Yes they do.
When the cell breaks down the glucose molecule and releases energy, what happens to that energy?
It is used to carry out the plants functions like growing and producing seeds.
Do plant cells store some of the sugar molecules?
Yes some is stored for the plant's later use.
Why do living things need energy?
To carry out cell functions.
Give an example of how energy from the sun gets into your cells.
Wheat captures the sun's energy and I eat bread made from wheat.
Where does the Hydrogen that is used in Stage 2 of Photosynthesis come from?
Hydrogen comes from Water that is split apart in Stage 1.
What are the key molecules in Cellular Respiration?
Glucose and Oxygen enter the cell and ATP (Energy) +Carbon Dioxide+ Water are produced.
Where does Cellular Respiration occur?
In the Cytoplasm and the Mitochondria.
Why do organisms need to carry out Cellular Respiration?
In order to produce the energy that the cells need to perform their functions.
The Carbon Cycle.
The circulation of carbon between living organisms and their surroundings. Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is synthesized by plants into plant tissue, which is ingested and metabolized by animals and converted to carbon dioxide again during respiration and decay
What processes are involved in the Carbon Cycle?
Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle.