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AP Bio CH. 15

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You set your time machine for 3 billion years ago and push the start button. When the dust clears, you look out the window. Which of the following describes what you would probably see?
green scum in the water
The oldest evidence of life on Earth, shown in the figure below, is ____
which fossilized prokaryotes are found
Spontaneous generation of life from nonlife _____.
likely occurred once or at most a few times about 3.9 billion years ago
Which of the following is thought to have been the first step in the origin of life?
formation of organic monomers such as amino acids
Which of the following was virtually absent from the atmosphere at the time life is thought to have originated?
oxygen
In their experiment on the origin of organic compounds, which of the following provides the complete list of gases that Miller and Urey used to simulate Earth's early atmosphere?
water vapor, hydrogen, methane, ammonia
The Miller experiments (and subsequent, similar experiments) showed that _____.
simple organic molecules can form spontaneously under conditions like those thought to prevail early in Earth's history
The origin of life on Earth probably depended on _____.
a reducing atmosphere and energy sources such as lightning and intense UV radiation
The features shown below are _____.
protocells
Hot sand, clay, or rock may have played an important role in the origin of life because _____.
evaporation of seawater from these surfaces could have concentrated monomers, leading to the formation of polymers through dehydration synthesis
Polymerization _____.
is the generation of large molecules by joining together smaller subunits
It has been suggested that the first self-replicating molecules were _____.
RNA Molecules
The earliest cells were most likely _____.
prokaryotic
The oldest fossils have been dated to be approximately _____ years old
3.5 billion
About 2.2 billion years ago, oxygen released by early _____ became fairly abundant in the atmosphere, enabling the evolution of _____.
photosynthesis ... cellular respiration
While out canoeing you discover the remains of a dugout canoe in a river bed. You remove a sample of the wood and have it analyzed for carbon-14. It has one-quarter (25%) of the carbon-14 expected in a living tree. About how long ago did the tree the canoe was made from die?
about 11,500 years
A radioactive isotope has a half-life of 1.2 billion years. As measured by the presence of the isotope and its stable decay product, a rock originally contained 10 grams of the radioactive isotope, and now contains 1.25 grams. How many years old is the rock?
3.6 billion years
Which of the following matches an event in the history of life with the correct geologic era?
movement of plants and animals onto land: Paleozoic
If you want to see a dinosaur, it would be best to set the controls of your time machine for the _____.
Mesozoic era, 150 million years ago
The correct order of the geologic eras, from most ancient to most recent, is _____.
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
An event that marked the dividing line between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras was the _____.
extinction of the dinosaurs
The fauna and flora of Australia are very different from those of the rest of the world. Why might this be true?
Australia has been isolated from overland dispersal for about 50 million years.
Which of the following best describes how the breakup of Pangaea affected evolution?
Geographic isolation led to speciation, and the formation of unique faunas and floras on the different continents.
The figure below shows locations of modern or fossil lungfish. Their worldwide distribution indicates that _____.
lungfish predate the breakup of Pangaea, and thus are at least 250 million years old as a group
Climate and sea-level changes caused by the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea _____.
were the primary reason for the Permian mass extinctions of terrestrial and marine life
The San Andreas Fault in California is an example of a particular kind of junction between crustal plates. This kind of junction is called _____.
a strike-slip fault
What is a leading hypothesis for a factor or event that may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?
an asteroid or large comet impact
Which of the following would cast doubt on the asteroid-impact hypothesis for the extinction of the dinosaurs?
finding abundant fossil dinosaur bones in strata above (younger than) the 65-million-year-old iridium layer
Which of the following generalizations about extinction is FALSE?
Generally, the species that die in mass extinctions are less well-adapted than the species that survive. Thus, mass extinctions work to "weed out" unfit species.
The end-Cretaceous extinctions were followed by the _____.
adaptive radiation of mammals
Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. As illustrated in the figure below, the human adult skull is similar to the fetal skull in the chimpanzee. Biologists interpret human skull shape as an example of evolution by _____.
paedomorphosis
What is a likely explanation for a substantial change in body form between two closely related taxa?
changes in the number, sequence, and regulation of developmental genes
Fish that were ancestral to the first amphibians may have had limbs that were used for moving through underwater vegetation, and were later adapted for use in walking on land. If so, the limbs were an example of _____.
an exaptation
Careful analysis of many types of organisms suggests that the amazingly complex camera-like eyes of vertebrates and cephalopod molluscs (octopuses and squids) formed through _____.
gradual refinements that occurred independently in the vertebrate and cephalopod lineages to produce similar camera-like eye structures
Evolutionary trends _____.
can occur if the environment changes to promote the success of organisms with a similar set of traits; such trends may reverse themselves if environmental conditions change course
Higher taxa are like populations, in that some of their species persist and speciate (just as individuals within a population reproduce), whereas other species go extinct (just as individuals die without reproducing). This process, which can help in analyzing evolutionary trends, is referred to as _____.
species selection
The wings of birds and insects have the same function, but they do not have the same evolutionary origin. Bird and insect wings are _____.
analogous
Which of the following would be the least useful in determining the phylogenetic relationships among various species?
analogous features
Cacti are native to deserts in the Americas, whereas cactus-like euphorbs are native to African deserts. The two plant groups are not closely related, and the euphorbs have normal broad-leaved plants such as the Christmas poinsettia in their ancestry. The most likely explanation for the similarity of some euphorbs to cacti is _____.
convergent evolution
_____ evolution leads to _____ structures.
Convergent ... analogous
An example of a pair of organisms that have undergone convergent evolution is _____.
Australian "moles" (marsupials) and North American moles (placental mammals)
The scientific study of the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships is called _____.
systematics
What do phylogenetic trees represent?
the evolutionary relationships among organisms
The dog family is Canidae. Some well-known members of the dog family are the domestic dog, Canis familiaris; the coyote, Canis latrans; and the red fox,Vulpes fulva. If this classification represents phylogenetic relationships among the three species, we can conclude that the people who gave these animals these names believed that _____.
the common ancestor of coyotes and domestic dogs is more recent than the common ancestor of foxes and domestic dogs
Two worms in the same class must also be grouped in the same _____.
phylum
If species A and species B are in the same family, and species C is in a different family, and if the classification accurately reflects phylogeny, then you can infer that _____.
A and B have a more recent common ancestor than do A and C
Goldfish and guppies are in the same class. Therefore, they must also be members of the same _____.
phylum
Which of the following is the correct presentation of a species name?
Homo erectus
It's easier to say "cat" than Felis catus. What is the key advantage of using the Latin binomial in this case?
There are many cat species, but Felis catus specifically identifies the domestic cat and can be understood by scientists worldwide.
The system of binomial nomenclature assigns to each organism a unique name that describes its _____.
genus and species
A taxon _____.
is a formal taxonomic grouping at any given level
Put the following in order, beginning with the most general: class, family, genus, kingdom, order, phylum, species.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Leeches, ticks, mosquitoes, lampreys, and vampire bats all suck blood. Would they form a monophyletic group of close relatives with a recent common ancestor in a phylogenetic tree?
No, because their similarities are due to convergent evolution (adaptation to the bloodsucking lifestyle); phylogenetic analysis is based on homologous features, not analogous features.
Referring to the figure below, gestation (live birth) is a _____ character of the beaver and the kangaroo.
shared derived
A clade is the same as a(n) _____.
monophyletic group
The flight of a bee and the flight of a hummingbird are similar in many ways, such as in speed of wing movement, ability to hover, and ability to back up. Also, both hummingbirds and bees eat nectar, a diet shared by few other birds. In these respects, hummingbirds are more similar to bees than they are to other birds, such as robins and ducks. Yet no one would classify hummingbirds with bees because their similar flight capabilities and diet _____.
evolved independently in hummingbirds and bees
Assuming you will use the cladistic method, what characteristics would be most useful in constructing a phylogenetic tree of all bird families?
inherited characteristics present in some, but not all, bird families
In the figure below, consider the possibility that the turtle shares a recent common ancestor with the beaver. In the turtle's lineage, hair, mammary glands, and gestation were lost. The principle of _____ suggests that this tree is not the best hypothesis about how the taxa are related.
parsimony
Which of the following methods to establish phylogenetic relationships among organisms has been developed most recently?
comparing molecular features (such as gene sequences, amino acid sequences)
What are some of the special strengths of molecular systematics?
It allows study of relationships among very closely or very distantly related taxa, and it can often provide estimates of the time in years since taxa diverged.
What information is needed to calibrate a molecular clock and use it to estimate the time that has passed since two species shared a common ancestor?
You need to know the gene sequences for both of the taxa plus those of several related taxa. For at least three pairs of those taxa, you need good estimates of divergence times based on the fossil record.
Members of what was once the kingdom Monera are now divided into two major domains called the _____.
Archaea and Bacteria
We generally consider inheritance to flow from one generation to the next along independent lines of descent. Thus, the tree of life begins with a single root and spreads out along branches that, once separated, never rejoin. What phenomenon challenges this model of evolution?
horizontal gene transfer