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holds DNA


breaks down large molecules and damaged organelles


holds ribosomes


makes proteins


holds substances like food and water


carries molecules like proteins around a cell, from one organelle to another

Golgi apparatus

prepares proteins for being sent out of the cell

cell membrane

controls what goes in and out of the cell


release energy from sugar in the process of respiration


a cell which has a nucleus enclosing the DNA


a region on DNA that has the directions for making a specific protein or polypeptide chain


a nucleic acid that consists of a single strand; generally holds a copy of a single gene

polypeptide chain

a simple chain of amino acids

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