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Period 5 Review APUSH
Terms in this set (87)
Contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs
Panic of 1857
a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States that occurred in 1857. First world-wide economic crisis
In 1849, 80,000 men arrived in California
president after Harrison died in office
Polk acquired from the British; split at the 49th parallel
"Fifty-four Forty or Fight"
popular Polk slogan about the Oregon Territory.
James K Polk
President most know for territorial expansion
designed to eliminate slavery within the land acquired because of the Mexican American War.
Stephen F Austin
Father of Texas
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
"Napoleon of the West"
His victory at the Battle of San Jacinto secured the independence of Texas from Mexico.
a Franciscan mission in San Antonio, Texas, besieged by Mexicans on February 23, 1836, during the Texan war for independence and taken on March 6, 1836, with its entire garrison killed.
Rio Grande; Nueces River
A war fought between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848.The United States won the war, encouraged by the feelings of many Americans that the country was accomplishing its manifest destiny of expansion. Mexico renounced all claims to Texas north of the Rio Grande and yielded a vast territory that embraces the present states of California,Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming.
John C Fremont
U.S. general and explorer: first Republican presidential candidate, 1856.
California; Bear Flag Revolt
The California Republic was a short-lived, unrecognized state that, for a few weeks in 1846, militarily controlled the area to the north of the San Francisco Bay in the present-day state of California. The California Republic was a short-lived, unrecognized state that, for a few weeks in 1846, militarily controlled the area to the north of the San Francisco Bay in the present-day state of California.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The war officially ended with the February 2, 1848. The treaty added an additional 525,000 square miles to United States territory, including the land that makes up all or parts of present-day Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Designated the Rio Grande as the border.
an agreement between the United States and Mexico, finalized in 1854, in which the United States agreed to pay Mexico $10 million for a 29,670 square mile portion of Mexico that later became part of Arizona and New Mexico.
provided the land necessary for a southern transcontinental railroad and attempted to resolve conflicts that lingered after the Mexican-American War.
a political party organized in 1848 on a platform opposing the extension of slavery, was rooted in the growing conflict between pro slavery and antislavery forces in the United States.
a faction of the Whig Party in the state of Massachusetts noted for their moral opposition to slavery.
Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements in Kansas between 1854 and 1861
In reaction to the sacking of Lawrence, Kansas by pro-slavery forces, John Brown and a band of abolitionist settlers killed five settlers north of Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County, Kansas.
In Kansas pro-slavery forces held a constitutional convention and drew up the Lecompton Constitution in 1857. The constitution allowed Kansas to be admitted into the union as a slave state.
People choose about slavery in newly added territories.
Compromise of 1850
California was admitted to the Union as the 16th free state. In exchange, the south was guaranteed that no federal restrictions on slavery would be placed on Utah or New Mexico. Texas lost its boundary claims in New Mexico, but the Congress compensated Texas with $10 million. Slavery was maintained in the nation's capital, but the slave trade was prohibited. Finally, and most controversially, a FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW was passed, requiring northerners to return runaway slaves to their owners under penalty of law.
Stephen A Douglas
American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
13th President of the United States, the last Whig president, and the last president not to be affiliated with either the Democratic or Republican parties.
It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders.
strongly opposed immigrants and followers of the Catholic Church.
Party of Abraham Lincoln
Election of 1860
most immediate cause of the Civil War
network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century enslaved people of African descent in the United States in efforts to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
Dred Scott v Sandford
The Court's decision holding that blacks could not be U.S. citizens, exacerbated sectional tensions between North and South.
a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the United States Senate from Illinois, and incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate.
Stephen Douglas's doctrine that, in spite of the Dred Scott decision, slavery could be excluded from territories of the United States by local legislation.
an address given by Abraham Lincoln on June 16, 1858, at what was then the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield, upon accepting the Illinois Republican Party's nomination as that state's United States senator.
an American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
Harper's Ferry raid
raid was an effort by white abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a United States arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin
novel that showed the evils of slavery.
four slave states that did not seceed
President of the Confederate State of America
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean
Homestead Act (1862)
encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were required to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land.
its bombardment and surrender marked the start of the Civil War
It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. Showed the war would be long
Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson
one of the best known Confederate generals that died during the battle of Chancellorsville
goal was to defeat the rebellion by blockading southern ports and controlling the Mississippi river. This would cut off and isolate the south from the outside world.
Robert E Lee
Most important Confederate general
the bloodiest single day in American history, and the partial victory by Union troops led Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Monitor v Merrimac
Ulysses S Grant
commander of the Union army
most casualties; led to Lee not trying to advance any further in the North
turning point in the war; Confederates lost control of the Mississippi River
destruction campaign so that the South would lose the ability and will to fight
Appomattox Court House
the Confederates surrendered here.
protection for unlawful imprisonment
act of Congress during the early months of the American Civil War permitting confiscation of any of property being used to support the Confederate independence effort, including slaves.
declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
officially ended slavery
broke out in New York when new laws were passed to draft men
Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
John Wilkes Booth
Shot Lincoln at Ford's Theater
Massachusetts 54th Regiment
the first military unit consisting of black soldiers to be raised in the North during the Civil War.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
First act to give freed slaves citizenship
If you are born here, you are a citizen and all people are entitled to due process and equal protection at all levels of government.
Gave African American males the right to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1875
protected all Americans, regardless of race, in their access to public accommodations and facilities such as restaurants, theaters, trains and other public transportation, and protected the right to serve on juries.
William (Boss) Tweed
boss of the political machine of the Democrat party, Tammany Hall
artist that showed the negative aspects of the Tammany Hall political machine and Boss Tweed
paper money issued during the Civil War
Compromise of 1877
Under the terms of this agreement, the Democrats agreed to accept the Republican presidential electors (thus assuring that Rutherford B. Hayes would become the next president), provided the Republicans would agree to remove federal troops in the south
required that 50 percent of a state's white males take a loyalty oath to be readmitted to the Union. In addition, states were required to give blacks the right to vote.
Lincoln's successor; one vote short of removal from office.
established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War
laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
felt Congress should control Reconstruction and should give blacks equal right.
leader of the radical republicans and most prominent person in the House of Representatives
the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and was brutally attacked.
Reconstruction Acts (1867)
laid out the process for readmitting Southern states into the Union.
Tenure of Office Act (1867)
federal law that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate.
a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
Southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War.
the South viewed as opportunists looking to exploit and profit from the region's misfortunes-supported the Republican Party, and would play a central role in shaping new southern governments during Reconstruction.
system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Ku Klux Klan
a vehicle for white southern resistance to the Republican Party's Reconstruction-era policies aimed at establishing political and economic equality for blacks
Amnesty Act of 1872
a United States federal law that removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most of the secessionists who rebelled in the American Civil War, except for some 500 military leaders of the Confederacy
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