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The nitrogenous waste from breakdown of protein

Uric Acid

The nitrogenouswaste from the catobolism of nucleic acids is...


Coil of arteriole inside the renal corpuscle

Afferent Arteriole

Blood vessel entering the renal corpuscle

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Type of epithelium in the PCT and DCT

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Type of epithelium in the decending loop of Henle

Juxtamedullary Nephron

Type of nephrons involved in the most significant salt and water reabsorption

Peritubular Capillaries

Type of capillaries that are responsible for most of the reabsorption of solutes in the renal cortex

Vasa Recta

Type of capillaries responsible for reabsorption from the loop of Henle in the region of the renal medulla


Filtration slits in the filtration membrane are due to cells called...

Fenestrated Epithelium

Term for the type of endothelium of basement membrane

Blood Hydrostatic Pressure

The most significant pressure accounting for filtration pressure is...

10 mmHg

The typical net filtration pressure in mmHg


Typical GFR value in mL/min.


Percentage of filtrate reabsorbed in nephron

Wastes reabsorbed

Main problem with having a decreased GFR

dehydration and electrolyte depletion

Main problem with having too high a GFR


In the renal autoregulation what would high blood pressure cause?


Sympathetic enervation would cause ______________of the ____________ arterioles.


Substance that is used to test renal function because it is not secreted or reabsorbed _____________.

Angiotensin 2

What hormone decrease GFR, increase blood pressure and decrease in urine volume?_______________


Most of the water, ions and minerals are reabsorbed in the ____________ of the nephron.

PCT and Loop of Henle

Two areas of the nephron tubule not influenced by hormones ______________________________.

transport maximum/320mg/dL

The point at which the reabsorption transport carriers are saturated is called the ____________________, and this is reached for glucose when blood levels reach _______________.


Hormone that promotes Na+ and water reabsorption ____________________.


Hormone that promotes water reabsorption only ____________.


Hormone that promotes Na+ and water secretion ___________.

DCT/collecting duct

Two areas of nephron effected by hormone regulation _______ and ________________.

reabsorption of Na+, K+, Cl-

Function of ascending limb of the Loop of Henle _______________________________.

reabsorption or loss of water

Function of the descending limb of the Loop of Henle ______________________________.

vasa recta

Blood vessels that receive water that is reabsorbed at the medullary Loop of Henle _________________.

peritubular capillaries

Capillaries in cortex that function in reabsorption of solutes in the cortical nephrons _________________________.


Urine flow of over 2 liters per day is referred to as ________________.


Urine flow of less than 100 mL per day is referred to as _____________.


Glucose in the urine is referred to as ____________________.

diabetes insipidus

ADH hyposecretion is referred to as _____________________.

type 2 diabetes diabetes mellitus

Insulin insensitivity result in the disease __________________.

type 1 diabetes IDDM

Insulin dificiency results in the disease __________________.


Percent of cardiac output received by kidneys ___________.

diabetes insipidus

Type of diabetes in which no glucose in the urine __________________.

gestational diabetes

Type of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria __________________________.

renal diabetes

Type of diabetes characterized by glycosuria but no hyperglycemia _____________________.

diabetes insipidus

Type of diabetes characterized by normal blood sugar and no glycosuria _____________________.


Substance that is used to test renal fuction because it is not secreted ot reabsorbed ______________.

C=UV/P C- renal clearence
U-waste concentration in urine
V- rate of urine output
P- waste concentration of plasma

Renal clearence= __________________________________________________. (Write terms out)

transitional epithelium

Type of epithelium of the ureters ____________________.

glucose and amino acid

List two molecules that have a renal clearence of zero _______________________________.


Area between the ureter opening and the urethral opening in the bladder _____________.


Wrinkly folds on the bladder lining that allow distensability ____________.

detrusor muscle

Smooth muscle of the urinary bladder ______________________.


Specific nervous system branch that causes the detrusor muscles to contract to avoid urine ______________________.

Micturation reflex

reflex arc in voiding urine ___________________________________.


Area of brainstem involved in voiding urine reflex ___________.

valsalva maneuver

Voluntary pressure on abdomen that can also facilitate voiding urine ________________________.


Clearing the blood of wastes through artificial means ______________________.

external urethral sphincter

The sphincter muscle conrolling urine flow that is skeletal muscle is the _________________________.

internal urethral sphincter

The sphincter muscle controlling urine flow that is smooth muscle is the _______________________.


Blood flows through the _______________ arteries before entering the interlobular arteries.

macula densa

The group of epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule that monitors the flow or composition of the tubular fluid is referred to as the________________________.


Percent of cardiac output received by kidneys _______.

minor calyx

Duct that follows the papillary duct in the flow of filtrate in the kidney _________________.

colliod osmostic pressure

What is the major pressure opposing filtration from the blood through the glomerular capsule _____________________________________________.


Stuctures (extensions) on the podocyte arms with negitively charged filtration slits that prevent particles larger than 3nm _________________.

Na+ and K+ pump

Active transport pump in the ascending loop of Henle (nephron loop) responsible for water reabsorption in the descending loop of Henle ____________________________.


What happens to GFR during exercise?


Normal osmolarity of blood in mOsms ________________.


If the urea concentration in the urine is 6.0mg/mL and the rate of output is 2 mL/min, and te plasma concentration of urea is 0.2mg/mL, what is the renal clearence?

BUN (blood urea nitrogen)

The level of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is expressed as ____________________________.


Abnormally elevated level of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is referred to as _____________________.


A toxic level of nitrogenous wastes that can lead to convulsions and death is referred to as __________________.

Renal columns

Renal pyramids are seperated by extensions of the cortex called _________________________.

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