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71 terms

Ch. 23 fill-in

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Urea
The nitrogenous waste from breakdown of protein
Uric Acid
The nitrogenouswaste from the catobolism of nucleic acids is...
Glomerulus
Coil of arteriole inside the renal corpuscle
Afferent Arteriole
Blood vessel entering the renal corpuscle
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Type of epithelium in the PCT and DCT
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Type of epithelium in the decending loop of Henle
Juxtamedullary Nephron
Type of nephrons involved in the most significant salt and water reabsorption
Peritubular Capillaries
Type of capillaries that are responsible for most of the reabsorption of solutes in the renal cortex
Vasa Recta
Type of capillaries responsible for reabsorption from the loop of Henle in the region of the renal medulla
Podocytes
Filtration slits in the filtration membrane are due to cells called...
Fenestrated Epithelium
Term for the type of endothelium of basement membrane
Blood Hydrostatic Pressure
The most significant pressure accounting for filtration pressure is...
10 mmHg
The typical net filtration pressure in mmHg
125mL/min.
Typical GFR value in mL/min.
99%
Percentage of filtrate reabsorbed in nephron
Wastes reabsorbed
Main problem with having a decreased GFR
dehydration and electrolyte depletion
Main problem with having too high a GFR
constriction
In the renal autoregulation what would high blood pressure cause?
constriction/afferent
Sympathetic enervation would cause ______________of the ____________ arterioles.
Inulin
Substance that is used to test renal function because it is not secreted or reabsorbed _____________.
Angiotensin 2
What hormone decrease GFR, increase blood pressure and decrease in urine volume?_______________
PCT
Most of the water, ions and minerals are reabsorbed in the ____________ of the nephron.
PCT and Loop of Henle
Two areas of the nephron tubule not influenced by hormones ______________________________.
transport maximum/320mg/dL
The point at which the reabsorption transport carriers are saturated is called the ____________________, and this is reached for glucose when blood levels reach _______________.
Aldosterone
Hormone that promotes Na+ and water reabsorption ____________________.
ADH
Hormone that promotes water reabsorption only ____________.
ANP
Hormone that promotes Na+ and water secretion ___________.
DCT/collecting duct
Two areas of nephron effected by hormone regulation _______ and ________________.
reabsorption of Na+, K+, Cl-
Function of ascending limb of the Loop of Henle _______________________________.
reabsorption or loss of water
Function of the descending limb of the Loop of Henle ______________________________.
vasa recta
Blood vessels that receive water that is reabsorbed at the medullary Loop of Henle _________________.
peritubular capillaries
Capillaries in cortex that function in reabsorption of solutes in the cortical nephrons _________________________.
polyuria
Urine flow of over 2 liters per day is referred to as ________________.
anuria
Urine flow of less than 100 mL per day is referred to as _____________.
glycosuria
Glucose in the urine is referred to as ____________________.
diabetes insipidus
ADH hyposecretion is referred to as _____________________.
type 2 diabetes diabetes mellitus
Insulin insensitivity result in the disease __________________.
type 1 diabetes IDDM
Insulin dificiency results in the disease __________________.
20-25%
Percent of cardiac output received by kidneys ___________.
diabetes insipidus
Type of diabetes in which no glucose in the urine __________________.
gestational diabetes
Type of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria __________________________.
renal diabetes
Type of diabetes characterized by glycosuria but no hyperglycemia _____________________.
diabetes insipidus
Type of diabetes characterized by normal blood sugar and no glycosuria _____________________.
inulin
Substance that is used to test renal fuction because it is not secreted ot reabsorbed ______________.
C=UV/P C- renal clearence
U-waste concentration in urine
V- rate of urine output
P- waste concentration of plasma
Renal clearence= __________________________________________________. (Write terms out)
transitional epithelium
Type of epithelium of the ureters ____________________.
glucose and amino acid
List two molecules that have a renal clearence of zero _______________________________.
trigone
Area between the ureter opening and the urethral opening in the bladder _____________.
rugae
Wrinkly folds on the bladder lining that allow distensability ____________.
detrusor muscle
Smooth muscle of the urinary bladder ______________________.
Parasymphathetic
Specific nervous system branch that causes the detrusor muscles to contract to avoid urine ______________________.
Micturation reflex
reflex arc in voiding urine ___________________________________.
pons
Area of brainstem involved in voiding urine reflex ___________.
valsalva maneuver
Voluntary pressure on abdomen that can also facilitate voiding urine ________________________.
hemodialysis
Clearing the blood of wastes through artificial means ______________________.
external urethral sphincter
The sphincter muscle conrolling urine flow that is skeletal muscle is the _________________________.
internal urethral sphincter
The sphincter muscle controlling urine flow that is smooth muscle is the _______________________.
arcuate
Blood flows through the _______________ arteries before entering the interlobular arteries.
macula densa
The group of epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule that monitors the flow or composition of the tubular fluid is referred to as the________________________.
20-25%
Percent of cardiac output received by kidneys _______.
minor calyx
Duct that follows the papillary duct in the flow of filtrate in the kidney _________________.
colliod osmostic pressure
What is the major pressure opposing filtration from the blood through the glomerular capsule _____________________________________________.
pedicles
Stuctures (extensions) on the podocyte arms with negitively charged filtration slits that prevent particles larger than 3nm _________________.
Na+ and K+ pump
Active transport pump in the ascending loop of Henle (nephron loop) responsible for water reabsorption in the descending loop of Henle ____________________________.
decreases
What happens to GFR during exercise?
300mOsm
Normal osmolarity of blood in mOsms ________________.
60mL/min
If the urea concentration in the urine is 6.0mg/mL and the rate of output is 2 mL/min, and te plasma concentration of urea is 0.2mg/mL, what is the renal clearence?
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
The level of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is expressed as ____________________________.
azotemia
Abnormally elevated level of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is referred to as _____________________.
uremia
A toxic level of nitrogenous wastes that can lead to convulsions and death is referred to as __________________.
Renal columns
Renal pyramids are seperated by extensions of the cortex called _________________________.