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World History Semester test
Terms in this set (85)
The ______________________ was a citadel (fort) that was built on a hill for defensive purposes, with temples and government buildings on them.
The "Iliad" and "Odyssey" are about events that supposedly took place between ________________________.
The most powerful god of the Greek Pantheon was _______________, who lived on Mount Olympus.
Most of Greece is fertile plains and farmland.
A lot of land in ancient Greece was highly suitable for farming.
The Iliad is a 15,693 line poem that is considered by many scholars to be the oldest work of literature in the ancient Greek language.
Indo-European Greek-speaking invaders that had advanced techniques in pottery, metalworking, and architecture.
The ancient Greeks were from about __________________________.
The "Iliad" concerns events during the siege of the city of ____________, by the Greeks.
The Ancient Olympic Games were held at Olympia, Greece, every ________ years
Hills divide the Greek peninsula into isolated valleys that partially served as a protection from foreigners.
Ancient Greece had an abundance of natural resources
Like other ancient religions, Greek religion required high standards of morality
Considered the "Pirates of the Mediterranean"
__________________ is the Greek word for city-state
________________________ was an ancient Greek poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey."
One main character of the "Iliad" is the Greek warrior _____________________.
The first games were probably held in ______________ B.C.
No islands sit off the coast of the Greek mainland.
Greek geography made it difficult for cities to unite into one single empire
The Greeks expected their religion to save them from sin, hell, etc
Located on a large island called Crete and relied heavily on overseas trade
The _______________ was a market and meeting place that most city-states had
The "Iliad" and "Odyssey" were written between ______________________.
The "Odyssey" is a poem that is, in part, a sequel to Homer's "Iliad" and mainly centers on the Greek hero _____________.
The ancient Greeks had little influence on Western Civilizations that came after them
Greece doesn't have an extensive river systems
A lot of ancient Greek civilizations were seafaring/trading cultures.
Possibly the oldest civilization but were a highly sophisticated, literate, and had a surplus agriculture.
Had sophisticated art with paintings made on plaster walls and a high status for women, but declined after natural disasters.
The Mediterranean Sea divides Egypt from ___________________ to the north.
The Nile River is located in northeastern ____________________.
Mesoamerica is located between what is present day ______________________ down through most of Central America
Mesoamerica has the Gulf of Mexico and __________________________ Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean is to the west.
An _______________________ is someone that claims neither faith nor disbelief in God
The Indus and Ganges Rivers run through it
Valleys along the two rivers on this subcontinent were among the greatest food-producing areas of the ancient world.
More than a thousand settlements with planned communities, among which are the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Shang kings may have had five different capital cities before settling Anyang
Huge heads carved from stone by artisans are believed to represent their gods or rulers, which is remarkable because they had no metal tools
By the end of the Zhou period, iron weapons had replaced bronze weapons, and soldiers on horseback carried powerful crossbows.
Mandate of Heaven was a dynastic cycle that determined who ruled and what needed to be done
Built large stone step pyramids, Olmec heads, and human figures
____________________ refers to a complex culture in which large numbers of people share several common elements.
_________________________ are seasonal wind patterns that cause heavy rainfall in the summer and winter.
The _________________ Mountains (which are the highest mountains in the world) form the northern border of the Indian subcontinent.
The belief in one God is called being _
The Epic of ____________________ is an epic Mesopotamian poem that records the exploits of a legendary king
The Sumerians in this area used irrigation ditches to expand the total amount of land that could be farmed
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers run through it
The Huang He and Yangtze Rivers run through it
Planned cities in the river valley with all houses built to the same plan with streets made in grid pattern
Had little stone or wood, so building relied on mud bricks
One of the first major cities was Teotihuacán, whose name means "Place of the Gods," with up to 200,000 inhabitants.
Built the largest pyramids in the world, with many still standing today
Invented silk, paper, gunpowder, and iron weapons and farming equipment.
System of writing is called hieroglyphics, which used pictures and more abstract forms, appears in writing on temple walls and in tombs
The area between the _________________________ Rivers in the Middle East (mainly present day Iraq) is called Mesopotamia
Tigris and Euphrates
__________________ were massive structures built by Mesopotamians as temples for religious purposes.
Immediately south of the Himalayas is the _____________________ River valley, a chief region in Indian culture
The Huang He is also called the ___________________ River
___________________ is a belief that there is no God.
Many small rivers helped develop fertile soil and transportation, with surrounding highlands providing safety from invasion.
Monsoons brought moisture for crops, and if the monsoons didn't come, the crops fail, and many people would starve
Many early civilizations, including the Olmec, in this region lived in forest environments in the tropical lowlands
Contact with Mongolian, Indo-European, and Turkish peoples in the frontier lands to the north often ended in conflict
Invented the arch, dome, and ziggurat
Public wells supplied all residents with fresh water and advanced drainage system moved wastewater from bathrooms to sewage pits beyond the city walls
Had ritual ball game and sacrifices
Invented the wheel for wagons and transportation, the sundial to measure time, and the arch for construction
The cracks created on materials they wrote on were used to attempt to foretell the future and thus have earned the name "oracle bones."
The way of life of a people in a certain time and place is called _________________
China has thousands of miles of fertile, food-producing land along its two main rivers, the _____________________________.
Huang He and Yangtze
The Tigris and Euphrates join together in the southeast and flow directly into the _________________________ Gulf
The belief in more than one god is called being ______________________
Traveling upriver, or to the south, was difficult task and so they built sails to take advantage of the power of the wind
Most ancient civilizations were ____________________
The Nile River runs through it.
Also called the Fertile Crescent.
Excavations north of the Huang He River, reveal huge city walls, royal palaces, and large royal tombs.
Pharaohs were mummified so that their bodies would be preserved for life in the next world.
While archaeologists have succeeded in translating Egyptian and Sumerian writing, they have not yet been able to interpret their writing
Throughout history, dynasties followed a predictable cycle—a rise to power, then years of successful rule, a decline in power, leading to rebellions or invasions.
Created a cuneiform system of writing using a reed stylus (a tool for writing), they made wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets
Calculated area and volume, used geometry to survey flooded land, and developed an accurate 365 day calendar based on the moon and bright star Sirius.
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