Bio 11 Final
Terms in this set (32)
Causes of mutations
base changes bc chemical runs, chromosomes break (radiation), nondisjunction, translocation, DNA polymerase errors
mitosis, personal genetics, can cause cancer
occur in cells that give rise to gametes (generational- diversity in evolution)
in single bases (silent, missense, nonsense)
C is changed to A at a position that doesn't change amino acid coding
change in codon meaning (no effect, silence change, reduces activity)
dramatic change to many codons to create nonfunctional proteins
They only in prokaryotes
They are multiple genes with one promoter
They consist of a promoter, operator, and structure genes
The operator has regulatory DNA sequences that can bind regulatory proteins which affect the expression of the structure genes
regulated by a repressor protein, catabolic (breakdown lactose)
regulated by a repressor that binds to operon, anabolic (building an amino acid)
what is a lac operon
a gene system whose operator gene and three structural genes control lactose metabolism in E. coli
repressive operon - lactose example
Example is trp operon In which the repressor protein is normally inactive but when the product of those genes (tryptophan) is present it acts as a co repressor and binds
CRP - where it attaches and when it is present?
it's a enzyme that attaches to the promoter not a part of the DNA sequence
only present when glucose levels are low
promoters have what type of sequences
consensus sequences - allow sigma factors to recognize them - The sigma factors bind to RNA polymerase and guide it to the appropriate promoter
regulatory proteins - bind to RNA polymerase
mutations can change
DNA in binding sites or promoters, coding sequences for transcription, QUANTITY
splicing can change
mRNA so it can no longer be transcribed, QUALITY, silent
breaks down proteins that have been tagged by ubiquitin via hydrolysis
what changes gene expression?
differentiation, proliferation, growth, death
single transduction pathway
A series of steps linking a mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
Signal, receptor, transduction, response
types of signals
environmental, intercellular, physical, chemical, ligands (reversible)
Types of receptors
Gated ion channel, protein kinase receptors, G-protein coupled receptors
types of transduction
direct, indirect, receptor kinase
A cell signaling mechanism in which the receptor acts as the effector in the cellular response.
Cell signaling mechanism in which a second messenger mediates the interaction between receptor binding and cellular response.
a receptor that is an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to another molecule- different targets
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G protein-coupled receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell.
receptor kinase and G-protein are both
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
2 steps in cell signaling pathway
signal - physical of chemical
receptor - hormone, ion, pro. kinase, G-protein
transduction - indirect or direct
how prokaryotes communicate
G-protein, kinase, GTP binding protein
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