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Science Test Official Study Guide
Terms in this set (12)
Which form of energy is especially important for living things and why?
All living things can tie their energy back to sunlight. Light energy is essential because autotrophs are able to capture this energy and convert it into chemical energy. This can then be processed by almost all living things.
Which molecule serves as a major source of energy for most cells?
Glucose is the major source for chemical energy for almost all cells. This molecule can be broken down and the potential energy can be released.
Define photosynthesis. What are the starting materials (reactants)? What are the products?
The process in which plants convert light energy into chemical energy
The Starting Materials: Carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil, *Light as an energy source
The Products: Glucose and oxygen.
What is the equation for photosynthesis reaction (in words and balanced formulas)?
Six carbon dioxide molecules plus six water molecules in the presence of light, convert to one sugar molecule and 6 oxygen molecules.
6CO2 + 6H2O light → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What organelle does photosynthesis take place in? What role does chlorophyll play in photosynthesis?
-Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast
-Chlorophyll is a light absorbing pigment, that captures the light energy to power the reaction.
Why is photosynthesis important to all living things?
Photosynthesis is important to all living things because all organisms benefit from autotrophic organisms being able to create their own food source. This allows heterotrophs to consume these organisms and get a food source (sugar). The oxygen that is also released can be used to power the process the cellular respiration.
What are the major parts of the plant and how do they help out in the process of photosynthesis?
There are 3 main parts of a plant that contribute to photosynthesis:
1) Roots - absorb water and nutrients from the soil
2) Stem - transports materials through structures called the xylem and phloem throughout the plant
1) Leaf- main site of photosynthesis
Define cellular respiration. What are the starting materials (reactants)? What are the products?
Cellular respiration is the process of breaking down glucose to release energy.
a. Starting Materials: Oxygen & Sugar
b. Products: Carbon dioxide, water, & ATP energy
What is the equation for the cellular respiration reaction (in words and balanced formulas)?
Glucose + Oxygen -----> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
One glucose molecule plus six oxygen molecules turn into six carbon dioxide molecules, six water molecules, and ATP energy is released
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP
What organelle does most of cellular respiration take place in?
Most of cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria.
Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Process of MAKING glucose
Occurs in the chloroplast
Requires light energy
Both are cellular processes
Both occur in eukaryotic organisms
Reactants/Products can be used to drive the other reaction
-Glucose and Oxygen are made (products) of photosynthesis and are the reactants of Cellular Respiration
Process of BREAKING DOWN glucose to release energy
Occurs in the mitochondria
Does not require light energy
What is fermentation and when is it used? List the two types of
Fermentation and the types of organisms that use them.
-Fermentation occurs to break down glucose in the absence of oxygen. This process is not as efficient as cellular respiration because it does not create as much ATP energy.
-Alcoholic Fermentation: Occurs in yeast cells in which glucose is broken down and carbon dioxide, alcohol, and energy is made. This is a familiar process in the baking and brewing industry.
-Lactic Acid Fermentation: Occurs in bacteria and the muscle cells of humans. When this occurs, lactic acid and energy is released. The lactic acid can cause a burning feeling in muscles during strenuous activity.
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