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AFROAM Finals study guide
Terms in this set (28)
In what ways did westward expansion complicate the question over slavery?
It increased the tension between the abolitionists and the Southerners because the abolitionists thought that it was an excuse to expand slavery
Describe some of the most important African American institutions in the North
- Free African Society: Richard Allen made it
- Prince Hall Masons, Churches: Richard Allen opened the first Methodist Church Philadelphia.
- Free Black School Pennsylvania.
How did the Mexican War present new challenges for the national legislature?
- They struggled to decide whether or not the new states should be slave states. Containment of slavery and Expansion of slavery.
- It would add to the tension between the North and the South which would add pressure to the Legislatures.
Describe the first and second waves of the abolition movement?
● 1st wave: 1600s-1830s.
○ Petitions, and freedom suits.
○ Middle/upper class white men.
● 2nd wave picked up in the 30s-50s that's when ordinary people became more supportive.
People in this wave include Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs. ○ Characteristics:
■ Non agression
■ 1850s idea of nonviolence is changed
In what ways did free blacks in the North sustain their community amidst racism
● Churches (Methodist Church:Richard Allen) they created groups by which to give each
● Created newspapers to keep the community informed on the ongoings that pertained to
them such as changes in legislation or any other social movement that could be perceived
as hopeful for their cause.
● Examples of this are the Liberator and The North Star.
● Schools; Free Black School Richard in Philadelphia. To give them a sense of normality,
that they were doing things white people had like schools for their children. (Literacy can
also be a form of resistance.)
How were the rights of African Americans restricted in the North?
● They had to pay bonds ($500 in the Midwest States)
● The Fugitive Slave Act which allowed blacks to get kidnapped
● Had to have proof of freedom at all times
How did African Americans shape the mainstream Abolition movement after 1830?
● Harriet Jacobs, Frederick Douglass.
● They gave the abolitionist movement some ground in which to stand, because up until
that point the abolitionist movement did not have a specific example which to point to
when stating that slavery was inhumane.
Describe how enslaved black Americans resisted the institution of slavery.
● They fought back, they ran away, they faked illnesses, they worked slower as a unit,
How did black women challenge traditional gender roles within social and political movements during the nineteenth century? Use specific women to provide examples to support your answe
● They challenged the traditional gender roles by taking positions of power and leadership such as Harriet Tubman, who led the movement of the underground railroad and leading slaves to "freedom".
How did South Carolina justify seceding from the United States?
● They thought that the agreement they made with the States was violated (The
Constitution) and so they thought that the agreement was nullified and so they left.
● Thought about it for a long time.
● All was documented in the Declaration of Immediate Causes.
● They thought that the North was not enforcing Fugitive slave Act
● The election of Lincoln.(Which for them implied the end of Slavery.)
What was the Anthony Burns Affair? What was its significance to our understanding of the impending crisis in the Union?
● Captured, escaped slavery.
● Fights in court in Boston and abolitionist try to free him.
● Doesn't work, Burns is convicted of being a runaway slave.
● President Franklin Pierce is to escort him South
● 50,000 people protest=church raising 1,500 to free him
● This leads to a debate of slavery up North.
● This adds to the crisis in the Union because it causes the North to push harder against
slavery and the South because laws don't agree with what the North wants to do socially.
What were some of the differing conceptions of "Liberty" that people held onto in the North and South? How were these conflicting ideas influential in the creation of legislation and the hardened political positions that led war?
● Liberty to the south was owning slaves, and liberty to the North was not to have slavery expand to the North.
● For the South it was purely economic liberty to be able to have "property"
● For the North it was purely social liberty
● North gained California and the South got stricter legislation
Explain why the canning of Charles Sumner is an important event? What does it tell us about the political atmosphere of 1856?
● He was the leader of the radical republicans
● He authored the first civil rights legislation
● This shows the impending change that was happening in the political climate during
Describe the rise of the Republican Party. What other political influences led to its rise?
Some of the Whig and Democratic party who didn't want slavery in the newly acquired territory which caused them to form their own party call the Republicans (Free Soil Party)
Who were those African Americans who called for emigration from the United States and what did they argue in the 1850s?
● Dred Scott case; the ruling stated that slaves were property. [Blacks had ]"No rights which the white man should respect"
● Douglass wants to move to Haiti and then he refrained.
● Absalom Jones; Founded the Free Black Society.
● Martin Delany wants to migrate to Africa
How does John Brown's actions in the 1850s illustrate the extreme tension within the United States?
● He wanted to raid Harpers Ferry, federal armory
● Wanted whites and blacks to do this together.
Explain the actions taken by the US government on the way to Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.
Why did Lincoln hesitate in issuing the Emancipation Proclamation?
● Lincoln did not want the border states to work with the confederacy, so he continually made it known that the civil war wasn't a war to end slavery
● He favored Gradual compensations
● The quickest way to end the war
What did some black leaders believe the mission of the Civil War was? And how did black Americans aid the war effort?
● Some black leaders believed that the civil war was the war for the freedom of all slaves.
● The 54th was an all African American group led by a white man who fought in the war.
● They were spies for the North in the South.
Why do people consider the Civil War the second American Revolution?
● The Civil War was the second American Revolution because African Americans didn't
feel like the Declaration of independence applied to them. It was a reconciliation from the
● Reconstruction didn't go all the way- talk about BLM
What are different historical interpretations for the causes of the Civil War?
● The Mexican war and the compromise of 1850 were causes as well as the Free Soil Party.
● The debate involving the legality and morality of Slavery.
● State vs Federal dominion as to how to regulate "we the people"
In what ways did southern secessionists attempt to refashion their reason for seceding from the United States toward the end of the war and well into the 1900s?
● State rights; states wanted to have the power of deciding for themselves whether or not slavery would be a thing.
● Because it was economically based the South saw the North imposing the end of slavery on them as the British colonist saw the unjust taxes England was putting on them and decided that it was a violation of the Constitution.
Explain the "Forced to Glory Thesis" put forth by Lerone Bennett.
● It explained that Lincoln wasn't trying to free African Americans. It discussed the idea that Lincoln through his speeches, policies, etc did not care for the abolition movement. And due to his lack of caring, it lead to struggles in the Reconstruction and Jim Crow era.
What are the two perspectives that offer explanations for the failure of Reconstruction?
1. White Terrorist Violence
2. Inability to ensure black suffrage
4. Northern exhaustion & compromise
There were still Jim Crow Laws, disenfranchisement, debt peonage.
"Slavery by another name"
And to this day, there are things that still haven't been solved from the reconstruction.
What did freedom mean? What were the obstacles of Reconstructing the South into a society
without slavery (or a post-slave society)? (IMPORTANT!)
● Freedom for the slaves meant having the same rights as white men, being treated as the white men were treated but most importantly being seen as a human being rather than a beast/animal.
● The main obstacle that Reconstruction in the south faced was the fact that for most it was a way of life and there is no way that it can be changed overnight or even over a generation. So, they tried to hold onto what they knew as hard as they could, because human nature is to fear change.
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
● 13th: abolished slavery
● 14th: "all persons born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens
including African Americans."
● 15th: "prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to
vote based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
First and Second Confiscation Acts:
● 1st: Confiscation Act Spring of 1862: you don't have to return slaves in border states.
● 2nd Act in Fall of 1862: Those who run across the Union lines are free.
Mother AME Zion Church of New York(1796):
"Positive Good" Pro-Slavery Ideology: Slavery allowed white men to not have to do the labor and African Americans got to learn about the white culture and Christianity faith.
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