73 terms

Final Test Review - American History

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Dawes Act of 1887
tried to civilize Indians and make them more little settlers by giving them land to farm, instead it harmed their native culture
Nomads
people who wander from place to place
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
The U.S. Army convinced a group of Cheyenne to stop raiding farms and return to their Colorado reservation peacefully, where the army attacked and killed about 150 people while burning the camp.
Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876
Battle at which Colonel George Custer's forces clashed with nearly 4000 well armed Sioux warriors led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull; Custer and more than 250 of his men were killed;
Great American Desert
Vast arid territory west of the Missouri River & east of the Rocky Mountains; encouraged westward expansion after Stephen Long's Expedition
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
wheat
thrived in the harsh conditions of the Great Plains
Mechanical Reaper
Machine invented by Cyrus McCormick that could harvest wheat quickly
Boomtowns
Communities that grew suddenly when a minerals were discovered
Haciendas
huge ranches owned by Spanish speaking Californians
open-range system
system in which ranchers did not fence in their property, allowing cattle to roam and graze freely
cattle ranching
Cowboys often worked on cattle drives. This was when a large herd of cattle was moved from the ranch to a market place where they could be sold. A lot of the original cattle drives went from Texas to the railroads in Kansas.
Josephine Cochrane
Invented the automatic dishwasher
George Westinghouse
An american entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railroad, air brake and alternating current
George Eastman
1888, lightweight Kodak camera that make photography an affordable pastime a
Christopher Sholes
Invented the typewriter in 1867
Thaddeus Lowe
invented the ice machine
Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
..., This act apporved the building of a transcontinental railroad that would utterly transform the West by linking the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific
Pullman Strike (1894)
A staged walkout strike by railroad workers.
President Grover Cleveland intervened because it was interfering with mail delivery and federal troops forced an end to the strike.
Laissez-faire
Policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
The railroad companies that worked together to create the first transcontinental railroad
American Railway Association
divided country into four time zones and adopted standard time to avoid scheduling conflicts
Monopoly
single company achieves control over an entire market
lock out
action where management refuses to let workers who are making demands into the workplace
Alexander Graham Bell (1876)
Invented the telephone
Great Northern Railroad
The Great Northern's route was the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the United State. It was a privately funded transcontinental railroad
Nativism
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that barred Chinese laborers from entering the United States
Ellis Island
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
Tenements
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
political machine
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
first subway systems
Boston and New York
Gilded Age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Gospel of Wealth
called on those who accumulated wealth to share their riches for the betterment of society
Exodusters
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal."
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
poll taxes and literacy tests
these were 2 methods used by southern politicians to prevent African-Americans from voting
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Pan-Americanism
the idea that the United States and Latin American nations should work together
Anglo-Saxism
An idea from John Friske that said the white English-speaking nations are superior and need to dominate.
Yellow Journalism
type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers
USS Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
Rough Riders
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris 1898
The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, and produced a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philippines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Colombia
in control of Panama when the Panama Canal was first built
assignation of President McKinley
why Theodore originally became President
this needed to be stronger to be involved in foreign affairs
US Navy
Panama Canal
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
16th Amendment
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
17th Amendment
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote
Progressivism
The movement in the late 1800s toend corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
Exposed the horrible, unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry.
Muckrakers
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)
an agency developed by the federal government to regulate banking and and investment activities
Federal Reserve System
the nation's central banking system
FTC (Federal Trade Commission)
The main federal agency designed to enforce consumer protection laws
Progressive Movement Goals
protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, fostering efficiency
Referendum
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the voters of a state
Recall
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
intiative
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
Progressives believed that
industrialization, urbanization had created social and political problems.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
William Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
conservation
Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment
Election of 1912 Candidates
Taft was renominated by Republicans, Roosevelt under Bull-Moose Party, Wilson for Democrats, Debs for Socialists
winner of 1912 election
Woodrow Wilson