U.S. History Chapter 26 Test: Reagan Comes to Power
chapter 26 review study guide questions
Terms in this set (67)
Why were many Americans frustrated with President Carter at the end of his term?
1. inability to solve domestic problems
2. inability to handle the Iran hostage crisis
What did President Carter do in 1979 when the Ayatollah Khomeini forced the shah to flee Iran?
Carter allowed the shah into the United States for medical treatment
What did Iranians do when Carter allowed the shah into the United States?
Iranian militants seized more than 50 Americans at the United States Embassy in Iran's capital, Tehran.
Why did Iranians seize the American hostages?
Iranians hoped it would force the United States to return the shah to Iran for trial.
What happened in 1980 that signaled America's decline as a world power?
President Carter's rescue mission failed and the Americans remained hostages.
Why was Ronald Reagan able to win the presidency in 1980?
Reagan promised to make America strong again
Who was Reagan's strongest support?
New Right (moral majority)
What issues did the New Right and Ronald Reagan support?
1. school prayer
2. strong defense
3. free market economics
4. opposed abortion
What was Reagan's comprehensive economic plan based on?
What was the trickle-down theory?
lowering the top income tax rates would create jobs and spur economic growth.
What did President Reagan do with industrial regulations?
Reagan deregulated industries
How did Reagan's policies affect the federal budget?
large tax cuts and increased military spending produced economic shortages in the federal budget causing the national debt to increase.
How were businesses affected by Reagan's policies in 1983?
1. inflation rate dropped
2. businesses revived
3. stock market increased
How did Reagan's cuts in federal funding affect social programs?
high unemployment among minorities
What military policies did President Reagan do as a result of his anticommunist views?
1. created a new weapons system
2. increased U.S. military presence in the Persian Gulf
3. developed and tested nuclear weapons
What was the Strategic Defense Initiative?
space-based missile defense system
Why did tensions increase between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1983?
Soviets shot down a Korean commercial airliner that killed many Americans
Why did the Soviets shoot the plane down?
they claimed the airliner was spying
What did the United States do as a response to the plane being shot down?
placed nuclear missiles in Great Britain and Germany
What did the Soviets do in 1984 as a result to the nuclear missiles being placed in Great Britain?
boycotted the 1984 Olympics in California
What did President Reagan do when he feared developing nations in Latin America would fall to the Soviet Union?
increased United States military involvement in El Salvador and Nicaragua.
What did President Reagan do in 1984 to aid El Salvador's civil war?
offered military and economic aid to train their troops to end the civil war.
Why did President Reagan cut off United States aid to Nicaragua?
Reagan believed the Sandinistas (Nicaraguan rebels) were backed by the Soviet Union.
What did Congress do to avoid another Vietnam War?
passed laws banning United States involvement against the Sandinistas
?What was the Boland Amendment of 1984?
blocked any United States aid to Nicaragua.
What did President Reagan do after Congress passed the Boland Amendment?
provided aid to Nicaragua anyways
What did President Reagan do in Grenada in 1983?
sent troops to Grenada to help restore order in the Caribbean
What was the result of the U.S. troops taking action in Grenada?
United States overthrew the coup and set up a government favorable to the United States.
What did President Reagan do to reach female voters while seeking reelection?
appointed women to political offices
appointed Sandra Day O'Connor to the Supreme Court
Who was Sandra Day O'Connor?
first female Supreme Court justice
Did President Reagan win a second term?
Yes, 525 electoral votes to 13
What showed signs that Reagan's economic policies were not working in 1985?
federal deficit increased to $200 billion dollars.
What was the Gramm-Rudman-Rollings Act of 1985?
required automatic across-the-board cuts in government spending.
President Reagan's tax cuts and deregulation of businesses led to what?
insider trading (financial information for own gain)
What happened as a result of insider trading scandals?
eroded the investors' trust in stockbrokers
What happened to the stock market in 1987?
stock market crashed with an estimated loss of $500 billion dollars.
In the late 1980's, what happened when the nation's savings and loan & the banking industries made risky loans to developers?
real estate market crashed
federal government had to pay billions of dollars to cover the losses.
What did President Reagan do after Congress cut off funds for the war against Nicaragua?
Reagan secretly found other sources of funding by bargaining with Iran.
How did Reagan secretly fund the Nicaraguan War?
Reagan shipped more than 500 antitank missiles to Iran and used the profits to pay for weapons and supplies for the Contras in Nicaragua.
What happened in 1986 regarding the arms sales with Iran?
arms sales became public
How did President Reagan respond to the arms sales becoming public?
Reagan appointed a committee to investigate the arms sales to Iran.
What did the committee decide regarding the arms sales to Iran?
committee cleared Reagan of any involvement
What did the Senate discover in 1987 when they investigated the Iran Contra-Affair?
Oliver North , a white house aide, funneled millions of dollars from the Iranian arms sales to the Contras.
What was Oliver North's position regarding the money being shipped to Iran?
North insisted that he acted out of loyalty and was doing what the president directed him to do.
What happened to Oliver North in 1988?
North was convicted on charges including the destruction of government documents and lying to Congress.
Was Oliver North's conviction upheld?
No, his conviction was later reversed on a legal technicality.
What did President Reagan do with the Soviet Union in 1987?
Gorbachev of the Soviet Union and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty ending the Cold War.
What did the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty do?
eliminated all medium-range nuclear weapons
Soviets withdrew troops from Afghanistan
What did Iraq do in 1990?
Iraq's ruler, Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait
Why did Iraq invading Kuwait concern the United Nations?
Kuwait was a major oil producer
What did the United Nations do as a response to Iraq invading Kuwait?
imposed economic sanctions on Iraq and set a deadline for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait.
What did Allied Powers do in 1991 when Iraq refused to withdraw from Kuwait?
Allied Powers began air and land assaults against Iraqi forces.
What did Gorbachev do in 1991 when he was receiving pressure from hard-line communists?
What happened to the Soviet Union in 1991 after Gorbachev resigned?
Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine declared their independence from the Soviet Union and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Why were the Allied Powers able to win the Persian Gulf War?
use of high-tech weapons
How did the use of high-tech weapons affect women?
women could play more significant roles in battle as gender became less important.
What did the Senate do in 1991 that affected the military?
removed the ban against women serving as combat pilots.
Were women able to serve in ground battles in 1991?
Did President Bush have success in foreign affairs?
Did Americans believe that President Bush handled domestic problems at home?
What was the American with Disabilities Act of 1990?
prohibited discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities in employment, transportation, telephone services, and public buildings.
What did President Bush do in 1992?
started the War on Drugs providing money to stop drug smuggling and illegal drug use
How was President Bush able to move the Supreme Court in a conservative manner?
Thurgood Marshall retired and Bush appointed Clarence Thomas
What did Anita Hill accuse Clarence Thomas of?
Was Clarence Thomas found guilty of sexual harassment?
What was President Bush forced to do when the recession hit in 1990?
What happened that made it difficult for President Bush to get reelected?
1. economy suffered from an international trade deficit
2. unemployment increased