1,342 terms

AP Latin Total Vocabulary

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abeō
verb
go away, depart
ācer
adjective
sharp, piercing
addō
verb
give to, add
aequō
verb
(make) level, equalize
aether
noun
upper air, ether
affor
verb
speak to, address
agnōscō
verb
recognize, understand
āla
noun
wing
aliquis
pronoun
some(one), any(one)
alter
adjective
another (of two), second
amīcus
adjective
friend(ly), amicable
amittō
verb
lose, send away
amō
verb
love, cherich
an
conjunction
whether
annus
noun
year
antrum
noun
cave, cavern
aperiō
verb
uncover, open
arbor
noun
tree
arduus
adjective
steep, arduous
ars
noun
art, skill
artus
noun
joint, limb
asper
adjective
rough, harsh
aspiciō
verb
look (at), behold
astō
verb
stand (by, near)
astrum
noun
star, constellation
attollō
verb
lift (up), arouse
audeō
verb
be eager, dare
aureus
adjective
of gold, gold(en)
auris
noun
ear
auster
noun
south (wind)
autum
conjunctive adverb
moreover, however
auxilium
noun
support, assistance
āvertō
verb
turn from, avert
bis
adverb
twice
cadō
verb
fall, die
caecus
adjective
blind, unseeing
canō
verb
sing (of), chant
carīna
noun
keep, ship
cārus
adjective
dear
causa
noun
cause, reason
cavus
noun
hollow
cēdō
verb
yeild, cede
celer
adjective
swift
celsus
adjective
high, lofty
centum
adjective
one hundred
certamen
noun
contest
certus
adjective
settled, certain
cingō
verb
encircle, gird
cinis
noun
ashes, cinders
clārus
adjective
clear, famous
colō
verb
cultivate, worship
coma
noun
hair, foliage (of a tree)
condō
verb
put together, found
cōnsīdō
verb
settle, subside
cōnsistō
verb
take position
contrā
adjective
against, opposite
cor
noun
heart
corripiō
verb
snatch (up)
crēdō
verb
believe, trust, credit
crīnis
noun
hair (of the head)
crūdēlis
adjective
cruel, pitiless
currus
noun
chariot
custōs
noun
guard, custodian
deinde
adverb
then, thereupon
dēmittō
verb
let down
dēsero
verb
abandon, desert
dīrus
adjective
fearful, dire
doceō
verb
teach
dolor
noun
pain, grief
dolus
noun
trick(ery), artifice
dulcis
adjective
sweet
dūrus
adjective
hard, harsh
dux
noun
leader, guide
ecce
interjection
lo! behold!
efferō
verb
bear out, extol
effundō
verb
pour out
enim
conjunction
for, truly
ēnsis
noun
sword, steel
equidem
indeed, certainly
ergō
conjunction or adverb
therefore, ergo
etiam
adverb
also, even
exerceō
verb
train, exercise
extrēmus
adjective
farthest, extreme
faciēs
noun
figure, face
fallō
verb
deceive
fās
noun
divine right (law)
fax
noun
torch
ferus
adjective
wild, fierce
fidēs
noun
(good) faith, reliability, fidelity
figō
verb
(trans)fix, fasten
flūmen
noun
stream, river
forma
noun
shape, beauty
fortis
adjective
brave, strong
fūnus
noun
funeral, death
furor
noun
madness, fury
gemitus
noun
groan(ing), lamentation
gerō
verb
bear, accomplish
gravis
adjective
heavy, grave
gurges
noun
whirlpool, sea
haereō
verb
stick (to), adhere
harēna
noun
sand
hērōs
noun
hero
homō
noun
man, person
horreō
verb
shudder, bristle (at)
hortor
verb
deponent
urge, exhort
hospes
noun
guest, host
hostis
noun
(public) enemy, hostile
iaceō
verb
lie
iactō
verb
toss, boast
ignārus
adjective
ignorant
imāgō
noun
image, form
impellō
verb
drive, impel
impleō
verb
fill (up)
impōnō
verb
place on, impose
inānis
adjective
empty, vacant
incendō
verb
set on fire, excite
incipiō
verb
begin
inde
adverb
thence, thereupon
inquam
verb
quoth, say
īnsignis
adjective
marked, distinguished, significant
intereā
adverb
meanwhile
iter
noun
road, journey
iterum
adverb
again, a second time
iugum
noun
yoke, ridge
iungō
verb
join
iuvenis
adjective, noun
young, youth, juvenile
iuvō
verb
help, please
iuxtā
adverb, preposition
near, next to
laevus
noun
left (hand), awkward
lateō
verb
lie hid, be hidden
lātus
adjective
broad, wide
latus
noun
side, flank
laus
noun
praise, glory
legō
verb
gather, collect
lētum
noun
death, ruin
licet
verb
it is permitted (licit)
linquō
verb
leave, relinquish
loquor
verb
deponent
speak, talk
lūcus
noun
(sacred) grove
lūstrō
verb
cleanse, illumine
maestus
adjective
sad, dejected
malus
adjective
bad, evil
noun
bad people
mānēs
noun
soul(s), spirit(s), manes
membrum
noun
member, limb
memorō
verb
recall, recount
mēnsa
noun
table
mereō
verb
deserve, merit
metus
noun
fear, dread
misceō
verb
mix, mingle
miseror
verb
pity, commiserate
modus
noun
measure, maner
mōlēs
noun
mass(ive structure)
mōnstrō
verb
demonstrate, show, teach
mōnstrum
noun
omen, monster
mora
noun
delay, hindrance
morior
verb
deponent
die
moro
verb
delay, hinder
mōs
noun
manner, custom
mūrus
noun
wall
mūtō
verb
change
nemus
noun
glade, grove
nepōs
noun
grandson, descendant
nimbus
noun
rainstorm, cloud
nisi
conjunction
if not, unless
nōscō
verb
learn, know
nūbēs
noun
(storm) cloud
numerus
noun
number, amount
obscūrus
adjective
dark, obscure
ōmen
noun
omen, portant
ops
noun
assistance, resources
opis
noun
assistance, resources
optō
verb
choose, desire, opt
opus
noun
work; necessity
orbis
noun
circle, orbit
ordō
noun
succession, order
ōrō
verb
pray, plead
os
noun
bone
palma
noun
palm, blade of oar
pandō
verb
spread out, expand
pār
adjective
equal
pariō
verb
bear
patior
verb
deponent
permit, suffer
pietās
noun
loyalty, devotion, piety
placidus
adjective
gentle, placid
pontus
noun
sea, the deep
populus
noun
people, the nation
porta
noun
gate, portal
poscō
verb
demand, claim
post
preposition, adverb
after, behind
praeceps
adjective
headlong, precipitous
praemium
noun
reward, premium
precor
verb
deponent
pray, invoke
premō
verb
press, pursue
prior
adjective
earlier, prior
prō
preposition
before, for
prōlēs
noun
offspring, descendants
prope
preposition
near(by)
pugna
noun
fight, battle
pulcher
adjective
beautiful, handsome
quālis
adjective
of what kind?
quam
conjunction
how, as, than
quīcumque
pronoun
whoever, whichever, whatever
quiēscō
verb
rest, sleep
quīn
adverb
(but) that
quoque
adverb
also, too
rāmus
noun
branch, bough
rapiō
verb
seize, snatch
ratis
noun
raft, ship
reddō
verb
give back, render
repōnō
verb
restore, bury
respiciō
verb
regard, consider
rōbur
noun
oak (tree), strength
rumpō
verb
break, burst
rūrsus
adverb
back, again
sacerdōs
noun
priest(ess)
sacrō
verb
devote, consecrate
saepe
adverb
often
saevus
adjective
fierce, raging
scelus
noun
wicked deed, crime
scopulus
noun
crag, cliff
secō
verb
cut
secundus
adjective
second, favorable
sedeō
verb
sit, be settled
senex
adjective
old, aged
signum
noun
mark, sign(al)
similis
adjective
like, similar
sine
preposition
without (abl.)
sōl
noun
sun
solum
noun
bottom, ground
solvō
verb
loosen, release
sonitus
noun
bound, noise
sonō
verb
sound, resound
soror
noun
sister
sors
noun
lot, fate
spargō
verb
scatter, disperse
spērō
verb
hope
spēs
noun
hope
spūmō
verb
foam, spume
sternō
verb
strew, overthrow
subitus
adjective
sudden
superbus
adjective
proud, haughty
superō
verb
overcome, surpass
supplex
adjective
kneeling, suppliant
taceō
verb
be silent (tacit)
tam
adverb
so
tamen
conjunction
nevertheless
templum
noun
temple, shrine
temptō
verb
try, attempt
ter
adjective
thrice
tergum
noun
back, rear
thalamus
noun
bridal chamber
torqueō
verb
twist, wind
tot
adverb
so many
tremō
verb
tremble, quake
tumulus
noun
mound
turbō
(verb) confuse, disturb
(noun) tornado, whirlwind
unde
adverb
whence
undique
adverb
from (on) all sides
varius
adjective
varied, various
vel
conjunction
or
velut
adverb
just as, even as
vertex
noun
whirl, vortex, vertex
vertō
verb
turn
vester
pronoun
your(s)
vestīgium
noun
track, trace, vestige
vestis
noun
clothing, garment, vesture
vetus
adjective
old, ancient
virgō
noun
maiden, girl
viridis
adjective
verdant, green
virtūs
noun
manliness, valor, virtue
vitta
noun
fillet, band
volucer
adjective
flying, winged; bird
voveō
verb
solemnly promise, vow
vulnus
noun
wound
vultus
noun
countenance, face
absum
verb
be away, be absent
accēdō
verb
go to, acede
accendō
verb
kindle
accingō
verb
gird (on)
aciēs
noun
sharp edge; battle line
acuō
verb
sharpen
adeō
(adj.) to such a degree
(verb) go to, visit
aditus
noun
approach, access
adytum
noun
shrine, inner sanctuary
aeger
adjective
sick, weak
aēneus
adjective
of bronze, brazen
aequus
adjective
level, equal
āēr
noun
air, fog
aes
noun
copper, bronze
aestās
noun
summer
aestus
noun
boiling, tide
aeternus
adjective
eternal, everlasting
aetherius
adjective
airy, ethereal
aevum
noun
age, eternity
agger
noun
mound, dike
aggredior
verb
deponent
approach, attack
agitō
verb
agitate, drive
albus
adjective
white
alloquor
verb
deponent
speak to, address
almus
adjective
fostering, kindly
ambō
adjective
both
āmēns
adjective
mad, frantic, demented
amnis
noun
river, stream
amplector
verb
deponent
embrace surround
amplus
adjective
ample, spacious
animus
noun
spirit, mind
appareō
verb
appear
aptō
verb
fit on, equip, adapt
aqua
noun
water
arceō
verb
confine, restrain
arcus
noun
bow, arch
argentum
noun
silver; money
armō
verb
arm, equip
arrigō
verb
raise (up), erect
auctor
noun
originator, founder, author
auferō
verb
bear away, remove
auspicium
noun
omen, auspices
āvellō
verb
tear away, pluck off
avus
noun
grandfather, ancestor
axis
noun
axle, axis, chariot
bōs
noun
bull, cow, ox; pl. cattle
bracchium
noun
(fore)arm
brevis
adjective
short, brief
caedēs
noun
killing, slaughter
caedō
verb
fell, kill
caerul(e)us
adjective
dark blue, cerulean
caestus
noun
cestus, boxing glove
cardō
noun
pivot, hinge
carmen
noun
song, poem
carpō
verb
pluck
castrum
noun
fortress; pl. camp
cautēs
noun
crag, pointed rock
certō
verb
contend, fight
cervīx
noun
neck
cēterus
noun
the other(s)
ceu
adverb
just as, as if
chorus
noun
choral dance, band
cieō
verb
move, agitate
citus
adjective
stirred up, swift
claudō
verb
close, shut
clipeus
noun
(round) shield
coepī
verb
have begun
cognōmen
noun
(sur)name, cognomen
cōgō
verb
collect, compel
colligō
verb
collect, gather
collum
noun
neck
comitor
verb
deponent
accompany, attend
committō
verb
join, entrust, perform
compellō
verb
hail, greet
complector
verb
deponent
embrace
compleō
verb
fill completely
compōnō
verb
put together, arrange
concutiō
verb
shake, shatter
coniugium
noun
union, marriage
cōnscius
adjective
conscious
cōnsilium
noun
plan, counsel, council
cōnspiciō
verb
catch sight of, behold
contendō
verb
struggle, contend
contingō
verb
touch, happen (to)
continuus
adjective
unbroken, continuous
cōnūbium
noun
wedlock, marriage
convellō
verb
tear to pieces, destroy
conveniō
verb
come together, convene
convertō
verb
turn about, change
cornū
noun
horn
corōna
noun
crown, wreath
crēber
adjective
thick, frequent
cruentus
adjective
bloody
cruor
noun
blood
culmen
noun
top, summit
cupīdō
noun
desire, eagerness
currō
verb
run
curvus
adjective
bent, curved
daps
noun
banquet, feast
decōrus
adjective
becoming, adorned
decus
noun
beauty, glory
dēferō
verb
bear away, report
dēiciō
verb
throw, cast (down)
dēligō
verb
choose, select
dēmēns
adjective
distracted, demented
dēmum
adverb
finally, at last
dēnsus
adjective
thick, dense
dēscendo
verb
climb down, descend
dignus
adjective
worthy (abl.)
dīgredior
verb
deponent
step away, depart
discō
verb
learn
discrīmen
noun
crisis, risk
dīversus
adjective
different, diverse
dīvinus
adjective
divine, godlike
dominus
noun
master, lord
dōnec
conjunction
until
ductor
noun
leader, guide
dūdum
adverb
already, now for a long time
duo
adjective
two
ēdūcō
verb
lead forth
effor
verb
speak (out)
effugiō
verb
flee (away), escape
ēgregius
adjective
distinguished, uncommon
ēlabor
verb
deponent
slip (out), escape
ēn
interjection
lo! behold!
epulae
noun
banquet, feast
error
noun
error, mistake
ēruō
verb
cast out, overthrow
ēvādō
verb
go forth, evade
exanimus
adjective
lifeless, breathless
excēdō
verb
go forth, withdraw
excipiō
verb
take out, except
excutiō
verb
shake (out, off)
exigō
verb
drive out, exact
exorior
verb
deponent
rise (up), appear
expediō
verb
extricate, disentangle
ex(s)pectō
verb
watch for, await, expect
exstinguō
verb
extinguish, destroy
extemplō
adverb
immediately, suddenly
exterreō
verb
terrify, frighten
exuō
verb
put off, strip
exuviae
noun
spoils, armor
facilis
adjective
easy (to do), facile
famēs
noun
hunger, famine
famulus
noun
servant, house slave
fastīgium
noun
slope, summit
fātālis
adjective
fated, fatal
fateor
verb
deponent
admit, confess
fatīgō
verb
weary, tire
faucēs
noun
jaws, gullet
fēlix
adjective
lucky, felicitous
fēmina
noun
female, woman
feriō
verb
smite, strike
fingō
verb
shape, invent
fiō
verb
become
flectō
verb
bend, turn
fleō
verb
weep, (be)wail
flētus
noun
weeping, tears
fluō
noun
flow
fluvius
noun
stream, river
foedō
verb
defile, pollute
foedus
noun
treaty, league
folium
noun
leaf, foliage
foris
noun
door
formīdō
noun
dread, apprehension
foveō
verb
foster, protect
frangō
verb
break, shatter
frāter
noun
brother
fremō
verb
murmur, roar
fretum
noun
strait of water, sea
frōns
noun
leaf, foliage, frond
forehead, front
frūstrā
adverb
in vain, vainly
fulgeō
verb
gleam, flash
fulmen
noun
lightning, thunderbolt
fulvus
adjective
yellow, tawny
fūnis
noun
rope, cable
furiae
noun
rage, fury
galea
noun
helmet
gaudeō
verb
rejoice
gelidus
adjective
frost, ice-cold, gelid
gemō
verb
groan, lament
genū
noun
knee
germānus
noun
own brother (sister)
gignō
verb
beget, bear
glomerō
verb
collect, assemble
glōria
noun
glory, fame
gradior
verb
step, walk
gradus
noun
step, pace, grade
gremium
noun
lap, bosom
gressus
noun
step, walk
habitō
verb
occupy, inhabit
hasta
noun
spear
hauriō
verb
draw, drain
herba
noun
herb, grass
hibernus
adjective
wintry
hiems
noun
winter; storm
horridus
adjective
rough, fearful, horrid
hospitium
noun
hospitality, welcome
humus
noun
ground
hymenaeus
noun
hymen, god of marriage
iaciō
verb
hurl, throw
ictus
noun
blow, stroke
ignōtus
adjective
unknown
imber
noun
rain(storm)
immēnsus
adjective
boundless, immense
immittō
verb
send in, let go
immōtus
adjective
unmoved, immovable
impius
adjective
impious, disloyal
incēdō
verb
proceed, go in(to)
incertus
adjective
uncertain
inclūdō
verb
shut in, confine, include
incumbō
verb
lie on, lean on
induō
verb
put on, don
īnfandus
adjective
unspeakable
īnferō
verb
bear in (against)
īnfundō
verb
pour (rush) in
īngeminō
verb
redouble, repeat
ingredior
verb
deponent
step in, enter
inimīcus
noun
(personal) enemy, hostile
inīquus
adjective
unequal, unjust
īnsequor
verb
deponent
follow, pursue
īnsidiae
noun
ambush, treachery
īnsōns
adjective
innocent
īnstaurō
verb
renew, refresh, restore
īnstruō
verb
arrange, plan
īnsula
noun
island
intendō
verb
strain, stretch
interior
adjective
inner, interior
intrō
verb
go within, enter
intus
adverb
within
invādo
verb
attack, invade
inveniō
verb
come upon, find
invideō
verb
look on, envy, hate
iste
pronoun
that (of yours, contemptible)
ita
adverb
so, thus
iūs
noun
right, justice, law
iuvencus
noun
bullock, heifer
iuventa
noun
youth
iuventūs
noun
youth
lacrimō
verb
shed tears, weep
lacrus
noun
lake
latex
noun
fluid, liquid
laurus
noun
laurel
levis
adjective
light, slight
levō
verb
lift, remove
lēx
noun
law, rule
lībō
verb
sip, pour a libation
locō
verb
place, locate
longaevus
adjective
aged
lūctus
noun
grief, mourning
lūdus
noun
game; school
lūna
noun
moon
mactō
verb
sacrifice, offer
magister
noun
master, chief
magnanimus
adjective
great-souled, magnanimous
mandō
verb
hand over, commission, command
meminī
verb
remember
memor
adjective
mindful
mergō
verb
immerse, plunge
mēta
noun
boundary, goal
metuō
verb
fear, dread
mīlle
adjective
one thousand
mīrābilis
adjective
marvelous, wonderful
mīror
verb
deponent
wonder at, marvel at
misereō
verb
pity, commiserate
mōlior
verb
deponent
heap up, build
mollis
adjective
soft, gentle
moneō
verb
advise, admonish
monumentum
noun
reminder, monument
mortālis
adjective
mortal
murmur
noun
murmur(ing)
nauta
noun
sailor
nefandus
adjective
unspeakable, wicked
nefās
noun
impiety, wickedness
negō
verb
deny, refuse
nēquīquam
adverb
in vain, vainly
niger
adjective
black
nihil
pronoun
nothing
nimius
adjective
excessive, too much
nōdus
noun
knot, node
nūbilus
adjective
cloudy, misty
nuntius
noun
messenger, message
nympha
noun
nymph
ob
preposition
on account of (acc.)
obiciō
verb
oppose, throw in the way
oblīvīscor
verb
deponent
forget
obsideō
verb
besiege, occupy
obstipēscō
verb
be amazed, stand agape
occurrō
verb
run to meet, occur
offerō
verb
present, offer
ōlim
adverb
once, at that time
omnipotēns
adjective
omnipotent, all powerful, mighty
onerō
verb
load, burden
opācus
adjective
dark, obscure, opaque
orior
verb
deponent
arise, begin
ostendō
verb
show, stretch toward
ostentō
verb
show, display
ōstium
noun
mouth, entrance
ovō
verb
rejoice
parcō
verb
spare (dat.)
pāreō
verb
obey (dal.)
pascō
verb
feed (on), pasture
passim
adverb
generally, everywhere
pateō
verb
lie open, extend
patera
noun
bowl, (libation) cup
paucī
adjective
few
pāx
noun
peace
pecus
noun
cattle, flock
pellō
verb
strike, drive
pendeō
verb
hang, be suspended
penetrālis
adjective
inner, interior
n.pl., shrine
penitus
adjective
thoroughly, utterly
peragō
verb
finish, accomplish
pereō
verb
perish, be lost
perferō
verb
bear (to the end), endure
perficiō
verb
accomplish, perfect
perīculum
noun
danger, peril
pestis
noun
plague, pestilence
pharetra
noun
quiver for arrows
pingō
noun
pain, depict, embroider
pinguis
adjective
fat, rich
pinna
noun
feather, wing
plausus
noun
applause
plēnus
adjective
full
polus
noun
pole, heavens
pondus
noun
weight
portō
verb
carry
postis
noun
(door)post, portal
postquam
conjunction
after
potior
verb
deponent
obtain (abl.;gen.)
praecipitō
verb
throw headlong, precipitate
praeda
noun
booty, prey
praestō
verb
furnish, excel
praesum
verb
be in charge (at the head of)
praetereā
adverb
besides, moreover
prex
noun
prayer, entreaty
principium
noun
beginning
prōcēdō
verb
go forward, proceed
prōcumbō
verb
lie forward, sink (to the ground)
proelium
noun
battle, fight
prohibeō
verb
forbid, prohibit
prōiciō
verb
hurl, project
prōmittō
verb
send forth, promise
propinquō
verb
approach (dat.)
proprius
adjective
one's own, peculiar
prōra
noun
prow
prōspiciō
verb
look forward, provide
prōtinus
adverb
at once, immediately
pūbēs
noun
youth, men
pulsō
verb
beat, lash
purpureus
adjective
crimson
quamquam
conjunction
although, however
quandō
adverb
when? at some time
quantus
adjective
how great? as great as
quatiō
verb
shake
quattuor
adjective
four
quiēs
noun
rest, quiet
quisquam
pronoun
anyone
quisque
pronoun
each, everyone
quisquis
pronoun
whoever, whichever, whatever
quod
pronoun
because; (as for) the fact that
rapidus
adjective
swift, rapid
recēdō
verb
recede, withdraw
recēns
adjective
fresh, new, recent
recipiō
verb
take back, receive
recūsō
verb
refuse
redeō
verb
go back, return
redūcō
verb
lead back
regiō
verb
region, district
rēgius
adjective
royal, regal
rēgnō
noun
reign, rule
regō
verb
rule, direct
reliquiae
noun
remnant, remains
reor
verb
deponent
reckon, suppose
repente
adverb
suddenly
reperiō
verb
find (out)
repetō
verb
demand, reseek, require
requīrō
verb
demand, require
resīdō
verb
settle (down), sink
resolvō
verb
untie, loose(n)
respondeō
verb
answer, respond
retrō
adverb
back(ward)
revellō
verb
tear off
revīsō
verb
revisit, come back to
revocō
verb
call back, revoke
rīpa
noun
bank, shore
rīte
adverb
duly, fittingly
ruīna
noun
downfall, ruin
rūpēs
noun
crag, rock
saeviō
verb
rage
sagitta
noun
arrow
sal
noun
salt, brine
salsu
adjective
salty, salted
salūs
noun
health, safety
satis
adjective, adverb
enough, sufficient
scēptrum
noun
scepter; rule
sciō
verb
know (how)
sēcernō
verb
separate
semper
adverb
always, ever
sententia
noun
feeling, opinion
sentiō
verb
feel, perceive
sepeliō
verb
perform rites of burial
septem
adjective
seven
sepulcrum
noun
tomb, sepulcher
serēnus
adjective
clear, serene
sermō
noun
conversation, discourse
serō
verb
sow
adjective
late
signō
verb
designate, mark
sileō
verb
be silent
simulācrum
noun
image, likeness
simulō
verb
pretend, simulate
sinister
adjective
left
sinō
verb
allow, permit
sistō
verb
set, stand
spatium
noun
space
spēlunca
noun
cave
spīrō
verb
breathe, blow
spolium
noun
trophy, spoils
statuō
verb
station, establish
stirps
noun
trunk, stock, race
strīdeō
verb
hiss, whiz
stringō
verb
draw (tight), graze
struō
verb
pile up, construct
studium
noun
zeal, eagerness
subiciō
verb
drive in, expose, subject
sublīmus
adjective
lofty, subline
succēdō
verb
approach (closely), succeed
sūmō
verb
take (up), assume
supersum
verb
remain, survive
suscipiō
verb
take up, undertake
suspendo
verb
suspend, hang up
tangō
verb
touch
tardus
adjective
slow, late, tardy
taurus
noun
bull
tempestās
noun
tempest, storm
tenebrae
noun
darkness
tenuis
adjective
thin, tenuous
terreō
verb
frighten, terrify
tertius
adjective
third
testor
verb
deponent
call to witness, testify
timeō
verb
fear, dread
torus
noun
bed, couch
trabs
noun
beam, trunk of tree
trepidus
adjective
agitated, excited
trēs
adjective
three
tumidus
adjective
swollen, swelling
turba
noun
mob, crowd, tumult
ūber
noun
udder, fertility
ulterior
adverb
beyond, father, ulterior
ultor
noun
avenging, avenger
ultrō
adverb
beyond, furthermore
ūmidus
adjective
moist, humid
umquam
adverb
ever, at any time
urgeō
verb
drive, urge
uterque
pronoun
each of two, both
uterus
noun
womb, belly
vacuus
adjective
empty, vacant
vādō
verb
go, advance
vadum
noun
ford, shallow
valeō
verb
be strong, be able
validus
adjective
strong, valid
vallēs
noun
valley
vānus
adjective
empty, vain
vehō
verb
go, convey, carry
vēlō
verb
veil, cover
veneror
verb
deponent
venerate, worship
verbum
noun
word
verrō
verb
sweep, scour
versō
verb
turn (often), keep turning
vīnum
noun
wine, vine
vīscus
noun
vitals, entrails, viscera
vīsus
noun
sight, vision
vīvō
verb
live, subsist
vīvus
adjective
alive, living
volūtō
verb
roll, revolve
vulgus
noun
the common people
ā, ab, abs
preposition
(away) from, by (abl.)
ac, atque
conjunction
and, also; as, than
accipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus
verb
receive, ACCEPT; learn, hear, conceive
Acestēs, ae
noun
m. king in Sicily
agō, ere, ēgī, āctus
verb
lead, drive, do, treat, pass, conduct
āctus, a, um
verb
see ago
lead, drive, do, treat, pass, conduct
ad
preposition
to, toward, at, near, about (acc.)
adfore; adforem, es, et
verb
see adsum
be present, assist (dat.)
adsum, esse, fuī
verb
be present, assist (dat.)
Aenēās, ae, acc. ān
noun
m. Trojan prince, son of Venus and Anchises, here of the Aeneid
aequor, oris
noun
n. sea, waves; (level) plain
age, agite (agō!)
verb
up! come! lead on!
agmen, inis
noun
n. army, line, troop; course
aiō, ais, ait; aiunt
verb
say, speak, assert
alius, a, ud
adjective
other, another, else
altus, a, um
adjective
(on) high, lofty, deep
amor, ōris
noun
m. love, desire, passion
Anchīsēs, ae, acc. ēn
noun
m. Trojan prince, father of Aeneas
anima, ae
noun
f. air, breath, life, soul, shade
animus, ī
noun
m. soul, spirit, breath, courage; anger, pride; purpose, thought
ante
preposition
before (acc.);
adverb
sooner, previously
antīquus, a, um
adjective
ANCIENT, old, aged, former, of olden times, time-honored
āra, ae
noun
f. altar
ardeō, ēre, arsī, arsus
verb
born, be eager
arma, ōrum
noun
n. ARMS, equipment, tools
arvum, ī
noun
n. plowed land, field, region
arx, arcis
noun
f. citadel, fort; height, hill
at, ast
conjunction
but, yet, however, at least
āter, tra, trum
adjective
black, gloomy, deadly
atque, ac
conjunction
and, also; as, than
audiō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus
verb
hear (of), hearken
aura, ae
noun
f. breeze, air; favor; light
aurum, ī
noun
n. gold (object, equipment)
aut
conjunction
or, either
aut. . . aut
conjunction
either. . . or
bellum, ī
noun
n. war(fare), combat, fight
caelum, ī
noun
n. sky, heaven; weather
campus, ī
noun
m. plain, field, level surface
capiō, ere, cēpī, captus
verb
take, seize, catch; CAPTIVATE; deceive; occupy
caput, itis
noun
n. head; summit; life, person
cāsus, ūs
noun
m. chance, (mis)fortune; fall
cernō, ere, crēvi, crētus
verb
DISCERN, perceive, understand, decide; fight
circum
preposition
around, about, at near (acc.)
clāmor, ōris
noun
m. shout, roar, applause
classis, is
noun
f. fleet, army, ship
comes, itis
noun
m. (f.) comrade, follower
coniūnx, iugis
noun
m. (f.) husband, wife
corpus, oris
noun
n. body, CORPSE, form
cum
(conj.) when, while, since, although
(prep.) with (abl.)
cūnctus, a, um
adjective
all, whole, entire
cūra, ae
noun
f. care, anxiety, grief; love
cursus, ūs
noun
m. COURSE, running; haste
Danaeus, a, u
noun
Danaan, Greek
preposition
(down, away) from, of, concerning, according to (abl.)
dea, ae
noun
f. goddess
deus, ī
noun
m. god, divinity, DEITY
dexter, (e)ra, (e)rum
adjective
right (hand); favorable;
noun
f. subst. right hand
dīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus
verb
say, speak, tell, call, name, describe, chant
dictum, ī
noun
n. word, speech, command
Dīdō, ōnis
noun
f. legendary founder and queen of Carthage
diēs, diēī
noun
m. (f.) DAY, time, season
dīvus, a, um
adjective
DIVINE, heavenly, deified; subst. DIVINITY, god, goddess
dō, dare, dedī, datus
verb
give (forth), grant, allow, bestow; put, place, make
domus, ūs
noun
f. house(hold), home, abode; family, race, line
dōnum, ī
noun
n. gift, offering, prize, reward
dūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus
verb
lead, draw (out), protract; PRODUCE; think
dum
conjunction
while, as long as, until, provided
ē, ex
preposition
out of, from, according to (abl.)
ēgī, meī
pronoun
I
nōs, nostrum
pronoun
we
eō, īre, īvī (iī), itus
verb
go, proceed, come
equus, ī
noun
m. horse, steed, charger
ēripiō, ere, uī, reptus
verb
snatch (from), tear away; rescue; hasten
errō
verb
stray, wander, ERR; linger
et
conjunction
and, also, even, too
et. . . et
conjunction
both. . . and
euntis, ī, em, e, ēs, ium, ibus
verb
see eo
go, proceed, come
ex, ē
preposition
out of, from, according to (abl.)
faciō, ere, fēcī, factus
verb
do, make, perform; grant, offer; suppose
fāma, ae
noun
f. FAME, report, reputation
fāre, fārī; fātur; fātus, a, um
verb
see for
speak, say, tell, utter
fatum, ī
noun
n. FATE, destiny, doom; oracle
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus
verb
bear, endure; wear; report, say; carry (off), plunder; extol; tend; grant, offer
ferrum, ī
noun
n. iron; sword, weapon, tool
fessus, a, um
adjective
tired, weary, feeble, worn
fīnis, is
noun
m. (f.) end, limit, border; country; goal; starting-place
flamma, ae
noun
f. FLAME, fire, torch; love
flūctus, ūs
noun
m. wave, tide, flood, sea
for, fārī, fātus
verb
speak, say, tell, utter
fore; forem, ēs, et
verb
see sum
be, exist
fors, fortis
noun
f. chance, FORTUNE, hap
fortūna, ae
noun
f. FORTUNE, chance, luck
fuga, ae
noun
f. flight, haste, exile, speed
fugiō, ere, fūgī
verb
flee (from), escape, shun
fundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus
verb
pour (out), shed; law low, slay, rout; extend
furō, ere, uī
verb
rage, rave, be frantic
futūrus, a, um
verb functioning as adjective
FUTURE, destined (to be), impending, about to be; see sum
geminus, a, um
noun
twin, double, two
genitor, ōris
noun
m. begettor, father, sire
gēns, gentis
noun
f. clan, race, nation, herd
genus, eris
noun
n. birth, origin, race; descendant; kind, family
habeō, ēre, uī, itus
verb
have, hold; consider
haud
adverb
not, by no means, not at all
heu
interjection
alas! ah! ah me!
hīc
adverb
here, there, hereupon
hic, haec, hoc
pronoun
this, that; he, she, it
hinc
adverb
from this place, hence, thence
honōs (or), ōris
noun
m. HONOR, glory, reward; offering, sacrifice; charm, grace
hūc
adverb
to this place, hither, here
ī, ībam, ībo, īre, it, īte
verb
see eo
go, proceed, come
iam
adverb
now, already, finally, at once
īdem, eadem, idem
adjective, adverb
same, the same
ignis, is
noun
m. fire, flame, light, lightning, star; passion, love, fury, wrath
ille, la, lud
pronoun
that (famous); he, she, it
immānis, e
adjective
huge, monstrous, enormous, mighty, dreadful, cruel, atrocious
imperium, (i)ī
noun
n. command, power, dominion, rule, sway, mastery, realm(s)
īmus, a, um
adjective
superl. of inferus
low, below, underneath
ingēns, entis
adjective
enormous, mighty, huge
inter
preposition
between, among, during (acc.)
Iovis, ī, em, e
noun
see Iuppiter
king of the gods
ipse, sa, sum
pronoun
(him, her, it) self; very
īra, ae
noun
f. wrath, rage, anger, passion
īre
verb
see eo
go, proceed, come
is, ea, id
pronoun
that, that; he, she, it
it, īte
verb
see eo
go, proceed, come
ītalia, ae
noun
f. Italy
iubeō, ere, iussī, iussus
verb
command, order, bid, enjoin (upon), urge
Iūnō, ōnis
noun
f. queen, of the gods
Iuppiter, Iovis
noun
m. king of the gods
iussī; iussus, a, um
verb
see iubeo
command, order, bid, enjoin (upon), urge
lābor, ī, psus
verb
deponent
slip (by), slide, glide (by), descend; fail; faint, fall, perish; flow
labōs (or), ōris
noun
m. LABOR, hardship, task
lacrima, ae
noun
f. tear, compassion
laetus, a, um
adjective
happy; fertile; fat, sleek
līmen, inis
noun
n. threshold, doorway, entrance; abode; shrine; palace
lītus, oris
noun
n. shore, strand, coast, beach
locus, ī
noun
m. place, region; condition, situation; opportunity
locī, loca
noun
m. pl. place, region; condition, situation; opportunity
longus, a, um
adjective
long, wide, distant
lūmen, inis
noun
n. light, lamp; eye; sun, day; glory
magnus, a, um
adjective
great, large, huge, vast; noble, illustrious, mighty, important
maior, maius
adjective
compar. of magnus
great, large, huge, vast; noble, illustrious, mighty, important
noun
ancestors
manus, ūs
noun
f. hand; band, troop; deed
mare, is
noun
n. sea
māter, tris
noun
f. mother, dam; MATRON
maximum
adjective
superl. of magnus
great, large, huge, vast; noble, illustrious, mighty, important
medius, a, um
adjective
mid(dle), INTERMEDIATE
mēns, mentis
noun
f. mind, feeling, intention
meus, a, um
pronoun
my (own), mine
miser, era, erum
adjective
MISERABLE, unhappy, wretched, unfortunate, pitiable
mittō, ere, mīsī, missus
verb
send, hurl, DISMISS, let go; end, finish; offer, pay
moenia, ium
noun
n. walls; city; structures
mōns, montis
noun
m. MOUNTAIN, height
mors, rtis
noun
f. death, destruction, ruin
moveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus
verb
move; ponder
multus, a, um
adjective
much, many, abundant
noun
many things, many people
mūnus, eris
noun
n. function, duty; gift
nam, namque
conjunction
for; indeed, truly
nātus, ī
noun
m. son, child, young
-ne
particle
sign of a question; whether, or
adverb
lest, that not, no, not
neque, nec
conjunction
nor, neither, and not
neque . . . neque
conjunction
neither . . . nor
nōmen, inis
noun
n. NAME, fame, renown
nōn
particle
not, no
noster, tra, trum
pronoun
our (own), ours
novus, a, um
adjective
new, young, strange, late
nox, noctis
noun
f. night, darkness, sleep
nūllus, a, um
pronoun
none, no, no one
nūmen, inis
noun
n. divinity, divine power (will, favor, purpose, presence)
nunc
adverb
(but) now, soon, as it is
ō
interjection
o! oh! ah!
oculus, ī
noun
eye
olle
adjective
etc., old form of ille
omnis, e
adjective
all, every, whole, universal
noun
all men, everyone, all things, everything
ōra, ae
noun
f. shore, coast, region, border
ōs, ōris
noun
n. mouth, face; speech
parēns, entis
noun
n. (f.) PARENT, ancestor, father, mother
parō
verb
PREPARE, make (ready)
pars, rtis
noun
f. PART, portion, share, side
pater, tris
noun
m. father, ancestor, sire
patrius, a, um
adjective
PATERNAL, ancestral, native
pectus, oris
noun
n. breat, heart, soul
pelagus, ī
noun
n. sea, flood, waves
per
preposition
through, by (means of), over among, because of, during (acc.)
pēs, pedis
noun
m. foot; sheet-rope, sheet
petō, ere, īvī (iī), ītus
verb
seek, attack, aim (at), ask; scan
pius, a, um
adjective
devoted, loyal, righteous
plūrēs
adjective
compar. of multus
much, many, abundant
plūrimus
adjective
superl. of multus
much, many, abundant
plūs
adjective
compar. of multus
much, many, abundant
poena, ae
noun
f. PUNISHMENT, PENALTY, satisfaction, revenge, vengeance
pōnō, ere, posui, pos(i)tus
verb
put, place (aside); found, establish; bury
portus, ūs
noun
m. PORT, harbor, haven
possum, posse, potuī
verb
be able, can, avail
Priamus, ī
noun
m. Priam, king of Troy
prīmus, a, um
adjective
first, foremost, chief
procul
adverb
far, at a distance, (from) afar
puer, ī
noun
m. boy, child; slave
puppis, is
noun
f. stern; ship, vessel, galley
quaerō, ere, quaesīvī, quaesitus
verb
seek (in vain), miss, inquire, ask, try
-que
conjunction
and, also, even
-que . . . -que
conjunction
both . . . and
quī, quae, quod
pronoun
who, which, what, that
quis (qua), quid, (quī, quae, quod)
pronoun
who? which? what? why? any, some(one)
quō
adverb
whither, where(fore), whereby
quondam
adverb
(at) some time, formerly, ever
referō, ferre, tulī, lātus
verb
bear back, restore, carry off; reproduce, renew, recall; RELATE, say (re)pay
rēgīna, ae
noun
f. queen; adj. ROYAL
rēgnum, ī
noun
n. royal power, kingdom, REALM, rule, sway, sovereignty
relinquō, ere, līquī, lictus
verb
leave, desert, surrender, abandon, RELINQUISH
rēmus, ī
noun
m. oar
rēs, reī
noun
f. thing, affair, matter, deed, fact, fortune; state, commonwealth
rēx, rēgis
noun
m. king; adj. ruling, ROYAL
ruō, ere, ī, ru(i)tus
verb
fall; rush; sink; plow
sacer, era, crum
adjective
SACRED, holy, consecrated; accurse;
noun n. subst. SACRIFICE, holy implement (object); mystery
sanguis, inis
noun
m. blood; race, descendant
saxum, ī`n.
noun
stone, cock, reef, cliff, crag
sed
conjunction
but, moreover, however
sēdēs, is
noun
f. seat; abode, habitation; bottom; tomb, shrine; place, region
sequor, ī, secūtus
verb
deponent
follow, attend, pursue, accompany, seek
servō
verb
OBSERVE, watch; PRESERVE, save, guard, keep, rescue; nurse
conjunction
whether, if (only), in case that
sīc
adverb
thus, so, in this manner
sīdus, eris
noun
n. star, constellation, meteor; season, weather; heaven
sīlva, ae
noun
f. forest, wood(s), tree(s)
simul
adverb
at the same time, together
simul (ac, atque)
adverb
as soon as
socius, (i)ī
noun
m. ally, comrade, follower
sōlus, a, um
adjective
alone, only, lonely, SOLE
somnus, ī
noun
m. sleep, slumber, dream
stō, āre, stetī, status
verb
stand (fast, up); halt; endure; stick (to), remain
sub
preposition
(from) under, close (to), beneath, (deep) in, after (acc., abl.)
subeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus
verb
go under, bear; approach, enter; arise (dat.)
sublātus, a, um
verb
see tollo
lift, raise, upheave, stir up; remove, destroy
suī
pronoun
(of) himself, herself, itself, themselves; him, her, it, them
sum, esse, fuī, futūrus
verb
be, exist
summus
adjective
superl. of superus
upper, higher, above; subst. god, divinity
superus, a, um
adjective
upper, higher, above; subst. god, divinity
super
preposition
above, beyond, left, in addition, upon, concerning, about (acc., abl.)
suprēmus, a, um
adjective
superl. of superus
upper, higher, above; subst. god, divinity
surgō, ere, surrēxī, surrēctus
verb
raise, (a)rise, spring up, SURGE
sustulī
verb
see tollo
lift, raise, upheave, stir up; remove, destroy
suus, a, um
pronoun
his, her, its, their (own)
tālis, e
adjective
such, of such sort, the following
tandem
adverb
at length, finally; pray
tantus, a, um
adjective
so great, so much, so far
tēctum, ī
noun
n. roof; house, home, abode
tellūs, ūris
noun
f. earth, land, country
tēlum, ī
noun
n. weapon; wound, blow
tempus, oris
noun
n. time; occasion, crisis
tendō, ere, tetendī, tentus
verb
stretch; hasten, strive, (EX)TEND, aim; tent
teneō, ēre, uī, tus
verb
have, hold, restrain
terra, ae
noun
f. earth, land, country, soil
Teucrus, a, um
noun
Teucrian, Trojan
tollō, ere, sustlī, sublātus
verb
lift, raise, upheave, stir up; remove, destroy
tōtus, a, um
adjective
all, every, whole, full
trahō, ere, trāxī, tractus
verb
drag (out), draw (in), lead, PROTRACT, spend
trīstis, e
adjective
sad, unhappy, dreary, fatal
Troia, ae
noun
f. Troy, a city of Asia Minor
tū, tuī
pronoun
you
vōs, vestrum
pronoun
you (pl.)
tulī
verb
see fero
bear, endure; wear; report, say; carry (off), plunder; extol; tend; grant, offer
tum, tunc
adverb
then, at that time; further
tuus, a, um
pronoun
your(s), your own
Tyrius, a, um
adjective
Tyrian, Carthaginian
ubi
adverb
where, when, as soon as
ūllus, a, um
adjective
any, any one
umbra, ae
noun
f. shade, shadow, ghost
umerus, ī
noun
m. shoulder
unda, ae
noun
f. wave, billow, water, sea
ūnus, a, um
adjective, adverb
one, only, alone, single
urbs, urbis
noun
f. city, town
ut(ī)
conjunction
as, when; that, so that; how
vastus, a, um
adjective
desolate, VAST, enormous
vatēs, is
noun
m. (f.) prophet, seer, bard
-ve, vel
conjunction
or, either, even
vel . . . vel
conjunction
either. . . or
velim, velle, vellem
verb
see volo
will, wish, be willing
vēlum, ī
noun
n. cloth, canvas, sail
veniō, īre, vēnī, ventus
verb
come, go
ventus, ī
noun
m. wind, breeze, blast, air
via, ae
noun
f. WAY, road, journey, street
victor, ōris
noun
m. VICTOR; adj. VICTORIOUS
videō, ere, vīcī, victus
verb
conquer, surpass
vir, ī
noun
m. (real) man; hero; husband
vīrēs
noun
pl. of vis
force, VIOLENCE, energy
vīs, vīs
noun
f. force, VIOLENCE, energy
vīta, ae
noun
f. life, soul, spirit
vix
adjective
scarcely, feebly, with difficulty
vocō
verb
call, name, address, CONVOKE, INVOKE, invite, challenge
volō, ere, ī, volūtus
verb
REVOLVE, (un)roll, roll (round, through); undergo
vōx, cis
noun
f. VOICE, word, speech, sound
bona
adjective acting as a noun
the goods (property)
boni
adjective acting as a noun
good people
minores
adjective acting as a noun
descendants
aliquando
adverb
at some time
interdiu
adverb
during the day
mane
adverb
in the morning, early
meridie
adverb
at midday
nocte
adverb
at night
vesperi
adverb
in the evening
diu
adverb
for a long time
paulisper
adverb
for a short time
mox
adverb
soon, presently
nonnumquam
adverb
sometimes
numquam
adverb
never
cotidie
adverb
daily
cras
adverb
tomorrow
heri
adverb
yesterday
hodie
adverb
today
postridie
adverb
today
adhuc
adverb
still
quamdiu
adverb
how long
quando
adverb
when
ibi
adverb
there
eo
adverb
to that place
nusquam
adverb
nowhere
usquam
adverb
anywhere
usque
adverb
all the way to
cur
adverb
why
magis
adverb
more
itaque
adverb
therefore
paene
adverb
almost
quomodo
adverb
how
valde
adverb
very, greatly
desum
verb
be down, fail
intersum
verb
be between
prosum
verb
be useful, benefit
transeo
verb
go across, cross
praetereo
verb
go past, pass by
circumeo
verb
go around
exeo
verb
go out, leave
ineo
verb
go in, enter
intereo
verb
be lost, perish
obeo
verb
meet, oppose, die
affero
verb
carry toward, bring in
confero
verb
bring together, collect
es
verb
singular imperative of sum
fer
verb
singular imperative of
i
verb
singular imperative of eo
este
verb
plural imperative of sum
ferte
verb
plural imperative of fero
ite
verb
plural imperative of eo
quem
question word
whom
quocum
question word
with whom
quot
question word
how many
arbitrari
verb
think
cognoscere
verb
recognize
intellego
verb
know, understand
putare
verb
think
scire
verb
know
imperare
verb
order
invitare
verb
invite
obsecrare
verb
beg, beseech
persuadere
verb
persuade, convince
praecipere
verb
instruct
rogare
verb
ask
ac
conjunction
and
igitur
conjunction
therefore
sive
conjunction
whether, or
seu
conjunction
whether, or
autem
conjunction
however
quare
conjunction
wherefore, for which reason
qua re
conjunction
wherefore, for which reason
quamobrem
conjunction
wherefore, for which reason
quam ob rem
conjunction
wherefore, for which reason
quia
subordinating conjunction
because, since
quoniam
subordinating conjunction
because, since
etsi
subordinating conjunction
although
num
subordinating conjunction
whether
utrum
subordinating conjunction
whether
ne
subordinating conjunction
that . . . not, lest
ibi . . . ubi
conjunction
there . . . where
non solum . . . sed etiam
conjunction
not only . . . but also
talis . . . qualis
conjunction
such . . . as
tantus . . . quantus
conjunction
so great . . . as (great)
tot . . . quot
conjunction
so many . . . as (many)
tum . . . cum
conjunction
then . . . when
cum . . . tum
adverb
while . . . so also, at the same time
modo . . . modo
adverb
now . . . now
nunc . . . nunc
adverb
now . . . now
iam . . . iam
adverb
now . . . now
sive . . . sive
adverb
whether . . . or, if . . . if
tam . . . quam
adverb
so (as) . . . as
alius . . . alius
pronoun
the one . . . another
alii . . . alii
pronoun
some . . . other(s)
alter . . . alter
pronoun
the one . . . the other
Allegory
An extended metaphor; a narrative where abstract ideas figure as circumstances or persons
Alliteration
Repetition of the same consonantal sound at the beginning of two or more successive words
Anaphora
Repetition of a word at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines
Aposiopesis
An abrupt break in a sentence where the speaker is seemingly overwhelmed with excessive emotion; an unfinished thought with implied meaning; being at a loss for words
Apostrophe
A "turning away" from one to address another, often used to address an absent personified object or person; addresses an object directly rather than describing it in human terms
Asyndeton
The omission of connectors or conjunctions in a closely related series that creates a rapid statement of ideas
Chiasmus
Arrangement of two sets or pairs of corresponding or syntactically parallel words in opposite or reverse order; nouns and adjectives in the form AABB
Ecphrasis
A digression vividly describing a place, object, or event that often creates a transition to a new scene
Ellipsis
Omission of an easily understood or assumed word in order to avoid repetition, secure rapidity or narration, or accommodate the meter requirements
Enjambment
The building of suspense in verse by postponing a significant word or words related to the previous line to the next line; a run-on line
Hendiadys
The use of two nouns connected by a conjunction that have the meaning of a single modified noun
Hyperbaton
The separation of words, most commonly an adjective from its noun, that logically belong together; allows words to be placed differently for emphasis or sound
Hyperbole
Exaggeration for emphasis or rhetorical effect; overstatement
Hysteron Proteron
Reversal of the normal or expected sequence of events in order to put the more important idea, which would logically come later in time, first
Irony
The expression of something contrary to what is intended; when the words say one thing but actually mean another
Litotes
An understatement or double negative; usually consists of a negative word and a following adjective with a negative prefix; asserts something by denying its opposite
Metaphor
An implied comparison made through the figurative use of words that suggest a likeness between what is actually being described and something else
Metonymy
The use of one noun for another which it suggests, such as an attribute substituted for the name of a deity or the material an object was made with for the object
Onomatopoeia
The poetic use of a single word whose sound suggests its meaning
Oxymoron
A paradox, or the juxtaposition of opposite or contradictory words in the same phrase; often appears as a noun and an adjective
Personification
The attribution of human qualities to inanimate objects, animals, or concepts, in order to stimulate the reader's imagination and thus gain vividness
Pleonasm
The use of redundant, superfluous, or unnecessary words
Polyptoton
Repetition either of the same word in different forms of case of tense or of different words having a close etymological relationship
Polysyndeton
The use of more conjunctions than is needed in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses
Praeteritio
Ciceronian figure of persuasion that draws attention to an idea by pretending to pass over it
Prolepsis
Speaking of something future as already completed or existing; anticipation or preconception; often a noun that receives the action of an anticipatory verb follows it
Prosopopoeia
The impersonation of an absent or imaginary speaker as speaking for dramatic effect
Simile
An expressed comparison introduced by words such as like or as (qualis, similis, ut, velut, veluti, etc.), often lengthy
Synchysis
Arranges words so that pairs are interlocked in an ABAB pattern
Synecdoche
A type of metonymy where a part of an object is used to indicate the object itself
Tmesis
The separation of parts of a compound word by one or more intervening words
Epithet
The consistent use of an adjective to characterize some person or thing, like pius for Aeneas
Transferred Epithet
An adjective that agrees grammatically with one noun but is placed close to and shares its meaning with another noun
Tricolon Crescens
The use of three closely-connected or parallel descriptive elements increasing in size and emphasis to modify a person or thing
Zeugma
The use of one part of speech with two objects when strictly speaking the word can be applied to only one of them; a condensed expression in which one word has two different senses simultaneously
Anastrophe
The deliberate reversal or inversion of normal word order, often with the effect of emphasizing the words placed earlier; commonly a delayed conjunction or preposition
Antithesis
A striking contrast of juxtaposed words or ideas
Archaism
The use of words or expressions that are antiquated or out of fashion; often words whose spelling suggests a Greek origin
Assonance
The repetition of internal vowels in successive words
Diminutive
The suffixes -ulus, -olus, -iculus, -ellus, or -illus that diminish the size of a noun or adjective, often increasing the level of affection
Euphemism
Used to express a blunt or uncomfortable subject in a more subtle or agreeable manner
Foreshadowing
A clue or hint that suggests what will happen in a story; a verbal premonition
Gapping
A form of ellipsis that creates brevity or economy of expression by expressing a word common to two or more parallel expressions in the second one only
Condensation
A form of ellipsis that creates brevity or economy of expression by expressing a word common to two or more parallel expressions in the second one only
Golden Line
A form of interlocked or chiastic word order in which a centrally-placed verb is surrounded by two modifiers on one side and two nouns on the other in the form mMVnN
Grecism
A patronym, or component of a personal name based on the name of one's father; often contain the Greek suffix -ides or -idos
Juxtaposition
Placement of words that are closely allied in meaning next to one another for the purpose of comparing or contrasting the two; characterized by the absence of linking words between the two
Parallelism
The symmetrical arrangement of equal or balanced phrases or clauses
Poetic Plural
The use of the plural form of a pronoun or adjective in place of the singular
Prime Position
An unofficial term denoting emphatic placement of a word at the beginning or end of a clause, line, or sentence that often controls the meaning of the unit of thought
Sound Play
Accompanies or heightens the effect of another figure of speech by playing with the sounds of words
Word Play
Using word choice or position to suggest something beyond the literal meaning; often contains multiple figures of speech
Major Themes in the Aeneid
- War and a man
- The control of men's lives by fate
- The gods
- The importance of having a home, community, and gods
- The triumph of order over disorder
- The glory of Rome
- The nobility
- The acknowledgment of patriarchial primacy
- Tied together by pietas
Vergil's Writing Style
- A literary epic modeled after the Iliad and the Odyssey
- Filled with his sense of pride and his love for all things Greek
- He believed man was controlled by the gods
- Great talent in writing
Book 1
- Short introduction
- Juno expresses her jealousy and anger
- The Trojans leave for Sicily
- Juno appeals to Aeolus and he sends a storm to shatter the Trojan flet
- Neptune ends the storm
- The Trojans land in Africa, where Aeneas and Achates go hunting and the former gives a grand speech
- Venus appeals to Jupiter, who reveals Aeneas' destiny and sends Mercury to Carthage
- The two hunters meet Venus and exchange stories before going to Carthage
- They see the temple telling the story of the Trojan War
- Dido arrives to address Ilioneus
- He describes how they looked for Hesperia
- She takes pity on them, and sends scouts to find the concealed Trojans who reveal themselves
- He thanks her, so she invites them to a banquet
- Achates informs those on the ship and Venus sends Cupid instead of Ascanius
- Dido, falling for him, asks Aeneas to tell his story
Book 2
- Aeneas starts to tell Dido of the Trojan War, including the Wooden Horse and Laocoon's warning
- Sinon, a Greek sent to persuade the Trojans, tells them he was wronged by the Greeks
- Thus legitimized he said the Greeks had always wanted to leave Troy and the oracle advised a blood sacrifice (Sinon), and left the horse to atone for stealing Pallas' statue
- If the Trojans stole the statue, it would be bad for the Greeks
- Laocoon +2 die, they take the horse, and the Greeks return
- Aeneas has a vision of Hector warning him
- He awakes, sees Troy in flames, and takes up arms
- A priest tells what happens so he joins a group fighting, fails, and fight a mighty battle at Priam's palace
- Pyrrhus and the rest of the Greeks storm the palace
- Priam and his son die
- Aeneas yells at Helen, and Venus tells the family to move on
- It takes omens to convince Anchises, but they do and the family proceeds
- Cruesa disappears and a visions advises Aeneas to leave
- The Trojans take refuge in the mountains
Book 3
- The Trojans meet a ghost at Thrace
- They offer expiations for his murder, then proceed to Delos
- A priest there tells him to go to Italy
- They go to Crete and a plague strikes, so the Penates sends him to Hesperia
- A storm drives him to the Strophades
- They move on, and meet Helenus and his refugee Trojans
- He tells them to continue, so they go on to Sicily and Mt. Aetna to meet Achaemenides left by Odysseus and Cyclops
- Anchises dies
Book 4
- Dido tells Anna she has fallen in love
- Anna encourages her so she sacrifices to the gods
- Juno approaches Venus with collusion and she agrees
- They go hunting, but a storm forces Dido and Aeneas to take shelter in a cave
- Rumor spreads the story and Iarbas is so angry he has Jupiter send Mercury to get rid of Aeneas
- Aeneas decides to leave, angering Dido
- She reproaches him, he replys, they prepare to depart, she pleads again, and he remains steadfast
- Dido pleads for death, seeing visions of Sychaeus and dreaming of Aeneas
- She tells Anna to plan her funeral
- Mercury warns Aeneas again and Dido sees them ready to sail
- Dido dies, sending Anna into grief, and her spirit is set free
Book 5
- The Trojans go to Sicily and hold funeral games for Anchises
- They have a boxing match, a foot race, a ship race, and an archery contest
- Ascanius leads the young men
- Juno has Iris convince the weary women to set the ships aflame
- The weak are left in Sicily and the rest move on
- Anchises appears to Aeneas in a dream
- Palinurus falls overboard and dies
Book 6
- The Trojans arrive at Cumae and see the Temple of Apollo and the Cumaean Sibyl
- Aeneas prays and the Sibyl delivers a prophecy
- Aeneas is told how to visit his father in the Underworld
- Misenus dies and they begin to search for the Golden Bough
- They raise a pyre for Misenus while Aeneas descends into the Underworld
- They see Grief, Diseases, Age, Fear, Death, monsters, Charon, Palinurus, Cerberus, the ghosts of premature deaths, the Fields of Mourning, and Dido
- Then come dead warriors, a need to hurry, Phlegethon, punishment, and finally the palace of Pluto, where Aeneas places the golden bough
- They find Anchises in the Elysian Fields and walk together, talking about the future of Rome
- Special focus is given to Julius/Augustus Caesar, Pompey, and Marcellus
Book 7
- Finally, the Trojans arrive in Latium and feast with the local King Latinus
- A delegation goes to swap stories with the king
- The boundaries of the city are set out and the Trojans are offered a place to settle
- Juno summons Allecto, who stirs up trouble with his wife Amata and his daughter Lavinia's fiance Turnus
- Ascanius wounds a stag, sparking a confrontation and an army musters
Book 8
- Tiberinus advises Aeneas to seek an alliance with the Arcadians, so he sacrifices a white sow
- King Evander is receptive and they have a formal alliance
- The story of Hercules and Cacus is told at the feast
- Venus has Vulcan forge a shield for Aeneas
- It tells Rome's future history
Book 9
- Iris, sent by Juno, tells Turnus Aeneas is away and he decides to attack, laying siege and burning ships that turn into nymphs
- Nisus and Euryalus die taking word to Aeneas
- Ascanius leads a counter-attack, trapping Turnus, and he escapes by jumping into the Tiber
Book 10
- Jupiter addresses the gods, pleading for peace
- Venus and Juno state their positions and with side-taking the situation escalates
- Jupiter says fate will determine the outcome
- Aeneas arrives back with a huge army and a Trojan fleet is sped along by nymphs
- Turnus defends the coast
- Pallas gives a stirring speech before charging in
- He kills Halaesus, faces Lausus, and Juturna urges Turnus to go fight him
- Hercules begs to save Pallas but Jupiter said fate is solid
- Turnus kills Pallas and despoils the body
- Aeneas is crazed with grief
- Juno requests to save Turnus and spirits him away
- Mezentius fights the Trojans and boasts to his son
- Aeneas kills both of them
Book 11
- Aeneas sends Pallas' body home
- A 12-day truce is called
- After an angry exchange Aeneas and Turnus agree to duel
- The Trojans attack; one led by Aeneas fights Turnus and another attacks the base defended by Camilla
- Camilla is wounded and spirited away, so Turnus is forced to return
Book 12
- Turnus meets Aeneas in a duel, and peace talks fail
- They prepare as the armies come together
- Juno and Juturna spread dissent to get the Rutulians to attack, during which Aeneas is wounded
- He is healed but Juturna disguises herself as Turnus' charioteer to guide him away
- The army storms the walls, causing Amata to hang hersel
- When Turnus hears all this he agrees to duel Aeneas, but he grabbed the wrong sword and it snaps
- Aeneas pursues, sticking his spear in a tree
- Venus collects his spear and Juturna brings Turnus' sword
- Jupiter stops them from interfering further, agreeing with Juno to unite them under the Latin name
- He sends a fury to drive Juturna back
- They taunt each other, and Turnus reveals that the gods are his enemy
- Aeneas wounds Turnus and the latter admits his guilt
- He would have spared him but he say Pallas' war-belt
- Aeneas kills Turnus
bellum gerere
to wage war
certior facere
to inform
consilium capere
to make a plan
gratias agere
to thank
in animo habere
to intend
in memoria habere
to remember
orationem habere
to deliver a speech
proelium committere
to begin battle
iter facere
to make a journey, travel
vitam agere
to live one's life
First Declension
Second Declension
Second Declension Neuter
Third Declension
Third Declension Neuter
Fourth Declension
Fifth Declension
Nominative Case Functions
Subject: expresses who or what is performing the action (the slave is working)
Predicate nominative: restates the subject (the old man is a slave)
Genitive Case Functions
Possessive: expresses whose, of whom, or of what; links two nouns (the girlfriend of the girl)
Descriptive: with accompanying adjective, describes another noun (a woman of great beauty)
Partitive: indicates a part of the whole (more wine)
Objective: expresses object of emotion (the desire for monery)
With special words: requires translation "of" (plenus irae/full of anger)
Dative Case Functions
Indirect Object: indicates to or for whom something is done, shown, told, or given (the boy gave a kiss to the girl)
Possession: shows ownership (the boy has a dog)
Reference: indicates "with reference" to whom an action is done (for the soldier, the danger of war is real)
Double Dative: dative of reference + dative of purpose (he was the salvation of his men)
With Verbs: intransitive verbs (credo), impersonal verbs (licet), compound verbs (occurro)
With Adjectives: adjectives that require the meaning "to" or "for" (similis patri/similar to the father)
Agent: the person who must perform a necessary action (tibi agendum est/you must do it)
Accusative Case Functions
Direct Object: receives action of verb (Brutus killed Caesar)
Object of Preposition: accompanies per, prope, etc. (near the tree)
Place to Which: expresses motion towards with ad (towards the city)
Duration of Time: expresses passage of time (for three days)
Subject of Infinitive: subject of infinitive in indirect statement (I hear that the theater was closed)
Gerundive of Purpose: ad + gerundive expresses purpose or intent (to see the forum)
Exclamatory: expresses an exclamation (How unhappy I am!)
Ablative Case Functions (With a Preposition)
Place Where: Indicates a location (on the table)
Accompaniment: expresses partnership (the boy walks with his dog)
Personal Agent: indicates the person who completes the action of a passive verb (the moon is seen by the lovers)
Place From: expresses motion away (away from the city)
Ablative Case Functions (With or Without a Preposition)
Manner: indicates how (with a great rumbling)
Separation: indicates the distancing of one person/thing from another, following certain verbs (he freed himself from fear)
Cause: "because of" (he was in pain because of his wound)
Description: describes some characteristic with accompanying adjective (he was a man of great courage)
Respect of Specification: expresses in what regard or respect something is true (in my opinion)
With Certain Verbs: accompanies specific deponent verbs (fruamini vita/you should enjoy life)
Ablative Absolute: phrase consisting of pro/noun+ participle in ablative
Ablative Case Functions (Without a Preposition)
Time When: Expresses a point in time (in the summer)
Time Within: expresses time during which (in five months)
Means: indicates the instrument or tool with which an action is performed (the soldier wounded his enemy with a sword)
Comparison: expresses comparison between two persons or things (this mountain is bigger than that)
Degree of Difference: indicates the extent to which one person/thing differs from another (this mountain is higher by much)
Vocative Case Functions
Direct Address: naming or speaking directly to a person (Titus, close the door!)
Locative Case Functions
Place Where: indicates location without a preposition (maneo Romae/I am staying in Rome)
hic, haec, hoc
ille, illa, illud
is, ea, id
īdem, eadem, idem
+ the suffix -dem
qui, quae, quod
- Translated who, whom, whose, which, that
quis, quis, quid
- Plural same
- Exchange quod for quid
- Exchange qua for quo
Personal Pronouns
Reflexive Pronoun
N _______
G sui
D sibi
A se
A se
Adjective Rules
- Must agree with the noun in case, number, and gender
- However, does not need to have the same ending
- 1/2 declension of 3 declension
- Positive, comparitive, and superlative degrees
Substantives
- Certain adjectives have plural forms that can function as a noun
- bona, boni/mali, multa, multi/paucis, Romani, maiores, minores, omnes, omnia
Present Active
Perfect Active
Present Passive
Perfect Passive
Imperfect Active
Imperfect Passive
Future Perfect Passive
Pluperfect Active
Pluperfect Passive
Future Perfect Active
Future Active
CHECK
Future Passive
CHECK
Deponent Verbs
- Have passive forms and active meanings only
Deponent Verbs with the Ablative Case
- Take their direct objects in the ablative case, over accusative
- fruor=enjoy, fungor=perform, potior=obtain, utor=use, vescor=eat
Semi-Deponent Verbs
- Are active in the present system and passive in the perfect system
- audeo=dare, gaudeo=rejoice, soleo=be accustomed
Irregular Verbs
esse, posse, ire, fero, velle, nolo, malo, fieri
esse chart
posse chart
CHECK
ire chart
CHECK
fero chart
CHECK
velle chart
CHECK
fieri chart
CHECK
First Conjugation
S -a
P -ate
Second Conjugation
S -e
P -ete
Third Conjugation
S -e
P -ite
Fourth Conjugation
S -i
P -ite
First Conjugation Deponent
S -are
P -amini
Second Conjugation Deponent
S -ere
P -emini
Third Conjugation Deponent
S -ere
P -imini
Fourth Conjugation Deponent
S -ire
P -imini
nonne
- Introduces a question and expects an affirmative answer
num
- Introduces a question and expects a negative answer
-ne
- Introduces a question of simple fact with an affirmative or negative answer
- Attached to the first word to an emphatic word
Present Active Participle
translated _____ing
-ns for nominative singular
-nt- otherwise
Perfect Passive Participle
translated having been _____ed
4th principle part
-us, -a, -um
Future Active Participle
translated about to _____ or going to _____
indicated by -ur-
Active Periphrastic
translated will _____
future active participle + a form of esse
Ablative Absolute
grammatically independent from the rest of the sentence
an ablative noun/pronoun and an ablative present or past participle, may be additional words
Gerund
- A verbal noun with characteristics of verbs and noun
- Formed by adding -nd- to the present stem of a verb and adding the endings of the second declension singular noun
Nominative Gerund
does not exist, subjective infinitive instead
Genitive Gerund
translated of _____ing
-ndi
Dative Gerund
translated to _____ing or for _____ing
-ndo
Accusative Gerund
translated _____ing
-ndum
Ablative Gerund
translated by _____ing or with _____ing
-ndo
Gerundive
- Future passive participle
- Contains -nd
- Verb acting as an adjective in any noun case
Gerundive of Purpose
- Gerundive accompanying ad, causa, or gratia
- in order to _____, for the sake of _____, or for the purpose of _____ respectably
Gerundive of Obligation
- Translated must _____, ought to _____, or should _____
- A gerundive used with a form of esse
Supine
- Verbal noun
- Same endings as fourth declension noun
- Accusative (expresses purpose) and ablative (specifies) only
Infinitives
- Present is -re
"To Be" Infinitives
Present: esse
Perfect: fuisse
Future: futurus esse (futurum esse = fore)
"To Be Able" Infinitives
Present: posse
Perfect: potuisse
"To Go" Infinitives
Present: ire
Perfect: iisse
Future: iturus esse
"To Bring" Infinitives
Present: ferre
Perfect: tulisse
Future: laturus esse
Present Passive: ferri
Perfect Passive: latus esse
"To Wish" Infinitives
Present: velle
Perfect: voluisse
"To Be Unwilling" Infinitives
Present: nolle
Perfect: noluisse
"To Prefer" Infinitives
Present: malle
Perfect: maluisse
"To Become" Infinitives
Present: fieri
Perfect: factus esse
Uses of the Infinitive
Subjective: the subject or object of the main verb, neuter singular noun (It is sweet and glorious to die for one's country)
Objective: the direct object of a verb, neuter singular noun (A charioteer prefers to win rather than to be defeated)
Complementary: completes the meaning of another verb, often irregular (Is Limax able to fight the enemy?)
Indirect Statement
- A verb of mental or verbal action followed by a subject accusative and an infinitive
Present Active Subjunctive
1st Conj.: -et
2nd Conj: -eat
3rd Conj: -at
4th Conj: -iat
Present Passive Subjunctive
1st Conj.: -etur
2nd Conj: -eatur
3rd Conj: -atur
4th Conj: -iatur
Imperfect Active Subjunctive
1st Conj.: -aret
2nd Conj: -eret
3rd Conj: -eret
4th Conj: -iret
Imperfect Passive Subjunctive
1st Conj.: -etur
2nd Conj: -retur
3rd Conj: -retur
4th Conj: -iretur
Perfect Active Subjunctive
1st Conj.: -averit
2nd Conj: -everit
3rd Conj: -erit
4th Conj: -iverit
Perfect Passive Subjunctive
1st Conj.: -atus sit
2nd Conj: -etus sit
3rd Conj: -us sit
4th Conj: -itus sit
Pluperfect Active Sujunctive
1st Conj.: -avisset
2nd Conj: -evisset
3rd Conj: -isset
4th Conj: -ivisset
Pluperfect Passive Subjunctive
1st Conj.: -atus esset
2nd Conj: -etus esset
3rd Conj: -us esset
4th Conj: -itus esset
sum (subjunctive)
Present: sit
Imperfect: esset
Perfect: fuerit
Pluperfect: fuisset
possum (subjunctive)
Present: possit
Imperfect: posset
Perfect: potuerit
Pluperfect: potuisset
eo (subjunctive)
Present: eat
Imperfect: iret
Perfect: ierit/iverit
Pluperfect: isset/ivisset
fero (subjunctive)
Present: ferat
Imperfect: ferret
Perfect: tulerit
Pluperfect: tulisset
volo (subjunctive)
Present: velit
Imperfect: vellet
Perfect: voluerit
Pluperfect: voluisset
fio (subjunctive)
Present: fiat
Imperfect: fieret
Perfect: factus sit
Pluperfect: factus esset
1st Conjunction Deponent Subjunctive
Present: -etur
Imperfect: -aretur
Perfect: -atus sit
Pluperfect: -atus esset
2nd Conjunction Deponent Subjunctive
Present: -eatur
Imperfect: -eretur
Perfect: -itus sit
Pluperfect: -itus esset
3rd Conjunction Deponent Subjunctive
Present: -atur
Imperfect: -eretur
Perfect: -utus sit
Pluperfect: -utus esset
4th Conjunction Deponent Subjunctive
Present: -iatur
Imperfect: -iretur
Perfect: -tus sit
Pluperfect: -tus esset
Jussive Subjunctive
- Polite command
- Present tense (translated "Let him/them _____")
- Negative is ne
- "Let the togas yield to arms!"
Hortatory Subjunctive
- Encouragement
- Present tense (translated "Let us _____")
- Negative is ne
- "Let us not fight"
Deliberative Subjunctive
- Self-question
- Present tense (translated "Am I to _____" or "Should I _____")
- Imperfect tense (translated "Was I to _____")
- Negative is non
- "What should I do?"
Optative Subjunctive
- Wish
- Present tense (translated "If only _____", "May _____", or "Hope _____", possibly future)
- Imperfect tense (translated "If only _____ were _____", unaccomplished present)
- Pluperfect tense (translated "If only _____ had _____", unaccomplished past)
- Negative is ne
- "If only you would be the victor"
Potential Subjunctive
- Possibility
- Present tense (translated "may _____", "could _____", "would _____", or "should _____", present or future)
- Imperfect tense (translated "might have _____", "could have _____", or "would have _____", past)
- Negative is non
- "Spartacus may defeat the Romans"
Conditional Sentences
- If/then sentences introduced by si or nisi
- A conditional clause and independent clause
- Simple, future less vivid, or contrary to fact
- Mixed sentences can also happen
Simple Conditionals
- Both verbs are in the indicative mood
- Simply "If ____ happens, then _____ happens"
- Any tense, but if future/future perfect and future then it is a future more vivid conditional
Future Less Vivid Conditionals
- Express a remote future possibility
- Present subjunctive in both clauses
- Translated "If _____ should happen, then _____ would happen"
- Least frequent of the three
Contrary to Fact Conditionals
- Express things that could not possibly be true
- Imperfect subjunctive (present contrary to fact) or pluperfect subjunctive (past contrary to fact) in both clauses
- Translated "If _____ were to happen, then _____ would happen" or "If _____ had happen, then _____ would have happened"
Purpose Clause
- Introduced by ut (to, in order that, so that) or ne (so that . . . not, not to . . . )
- Subjunctive can be present or imperfect
- "Gloriosus was hiding in order to sleep for awhile"
Result Clause
- Often contains adeo, ita, sic, tam, etc.
- Introduced by ut (that, with the result that) or ut non (that . . . not)
- Subjunctive can be present, imperfect, or perfect
- "He had hidden so successfully that the centurion couldn't find him"
Indirect Command
- Contains a verb of command or persuasion
- Introduced by ut (that) or ne (that . . . not)
- Subjunctive can be present or imperfect
- "The centurion ordered him to empty the pot"
Fear Clause
- Meaning reversed from normal subjunctive clauses
- Contains a word of fearing
- Introduced by ne (that) or ut (that . . . not)
- Subjunctive can be present or imperfect
- "Gloriosus had feared that the centurion might harm him"
Relative Clause
- Indicative (factual)
- Introduced by qui, quae, or quod (who, which that)
- Explains and describes
Causal Clause
- Introduced by quod, quia, quoniam (since, because)
- Indicative (factual)
- Gives a reason as a fact
- Subjunctive (non-factual)
- Gives a reason as an allegation
Indirect Question
- Dependent subjunctive clause introduced as shown below and triggered by an indicative verb of asking
- Subjunctive (non-factual)
- Introduced by cur, quid, quis, quomodo, ubi, etc. (why, what, who, how, when, etc.)
- Restates a question
Double Indirect Question
- Subjunctive (non-factual)
- Introduced by utrum . . . an (whether. . . or)
- Restates more than one question
Doubt Clauses
- Dependent subjunctive clause introduced as shown below and triggered by a verb of questioning or doubting
- Subjunctive (non-factual)
- Introduced by num (whether) or quin (that)
- Expresses uncertainty (dubitare, dubium est) and certainty (non dubitare) respectably
Relative Characteristic Clause
- Subjunctive (non-factual)
- Introduced by qui, quae, quod (the type who . . . )
- Describes a type
Relative Purpose Clause
- Subjunctive (non-factual)
- Introduced by qui, quae, quod (to, in order to)
- Indicates purpose relating to an antecedant
- "Cicero gave Terentia a letter that she was to read"
Temporal Cum Clause
- Indicative
- The main clause contains eo tempore or tum
- Translated when or whenever
- Indicates a specific time
Causal Cum Clause
- Subjunctive
- Translated since or because
- Gives a reason
Circumstantial Cum Clause
- Subjunctive
- Translated when
- Indicates a general circumstance
Concessive Cum Clause
- Subjunctive
- The main clause contains tamen
- Translated although
- Indicates a truth granted by the writer

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