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Single Covalent Bond
a chemical bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared by two bonded atoms
a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion
a tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit
states that because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
a bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in the sausage-shaped regions above and below the nuclei of the bonded atoms
a process in which several atomic orbitals overlap to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
nonpolar covalent bond
a bond formed when the atoms in a molecule are alike and the bonding electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond
a bond formed when two different atoms are joined by covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared unequally
van der Waals forces
a term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; these include dispersion forces and dipole interactions
attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; they are the weakest interactions between molecules
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electron negative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom
one of the two or more equally valid electron dot structures of a molecule or a polyatomic ion
a relative measure of an atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond
the amount of energy required to break a specific bond in one mole of molecule, given in kJ/mole
a symbolic representation of the arrangement of the valence electrons of an element or compound
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