68 terms

Bio Chapter 4 Vocabulary

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basal body
anchors the cilium or flagellum
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
cell wall
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
cellular metabolism
all the chemical activities of a cell
Central Vacuole
large, fluid-filled organelle; store water, enzymes, metabolic, wastes, and other materials in plants
Centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
Chloroplast
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
chromosome
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
Cristae
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
electron microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen
endomembrane system
Rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi apparatus. A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
Endosymbiosis
A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes.
Eukaryotic cells
Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.
extracellular matrix
The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
flagellum
A long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move.
glycoprotein
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
Golgi apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Granum
stack of thylakoids
Integrins
membrane proteins; they transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton
intermediate filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments
intermediate space
electron flow causes the hydrogen ions to be pumped from the matrix to the mitochondria
light microscope
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens.
lysosome
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
Microfilaments
Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell
micrograph
photograph of the view through a microscope
Microtube
microscopic cylinders that support and give the cell shape
mitochondrial matrix
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell. location of cellular respiration
nuclear envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Nucleoid
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
Nucleolus
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
Nucleus
Control center of the cell
Organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
Peroxisomes
Break down fatty acids and produce hydrogen peroxide
plasma membrane
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
Plasmodesmata
channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
Ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
scanning electron microscope
An electron microscope used to study the fine details of cell surfaces
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
Stroma
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
Thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
transmission electron microscope
An electron microscope used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells
transport vessicle / bleb
how the polypeptides are transported
Vacuole
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Vessicle
A small, membrane-bound sac that transports subjects in and out of cells.
centro-
center
chloro-
green
cili-
hair
cyto-
cell
-ell
small
endo-
inner
sym-
together
bios-
living
eu-
true
Karyo-
nucleus
extra-
outside
flagella-
whip
glyco-
sweet
Lyso-
loosen
micro-
small
tubul-
small pipe