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Terms in this set (92)
a political party set of basic beliefs or principles that it stands for
refers to people who hold traditional values, favor less government involvement and are conservative in their values
people who favor more fundament changes, more government involvement and are considered liberal in their views
favor statue quo, not totally opposed to changes but hesitant and cautious on new policies, believes the federal government should stay out of people's lives
government should actively promote social change and they view change as a good thing existing social order
each party announces its presidential candidates and writes its platform
A person who is chosen or elected to represent a person or group
A system of government in which written constitution divides power between a central or national government and several regional governments
Those powers, expressed, implied, or inherent, granted to the National Government by the constitution
those powers that the Constitution does not grant to the National Government and does not deny to the States, powers to the state
The legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one state is returned to that state
checks and balances
system of overlapping the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to permit each branch to check the actions of the others
A counting of the population
- taken every 10 years
-determines the number of representatives that each states gets in the house of representatives
Legislative Branch - makes laws
Executive Branch - enforces laws
Judicial Branch - interpret laws
An action by the House of Representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the United States of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Make up house of representatives and senate
house : 435 members, # of reps is based on population, 2 year term length
senate : 100 members, 2 per state, 6 year term length
Vice President powers
First in line to succeed President
give congress the power make all laws in order to uphold their power even if they are not listed in the constitution (implied powers)
- declare war
- foreign commerce
- raise an army
- postal roads
Chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature
1. Vice President
2. Speaker of the House
3. speaker of the senate
4.cabinet members in order of establishment
qualification of president, house and senate
president - natural born citizen and 35 years old
house - 25 years old and citizen for 7 years
senate - 30 years old and citizen for 9 years
group of officials who head government departments and advise the President
a form of government in which the supreme authority rest with the people
grant in aid
grants of federal money or other resources to states, cities, countries and other local units
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
to defend the Constitution
social contract theory
The belief that people are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed;
- by John Locke and influential in the writing of the declaration of independence.
A particular preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific.
Supreme Court justices
- 9 justices
-nominated by the president,
- approved by the Senate
various tactics (usually long speeches) aimed at defeating a bill in a legislative body by preventing a final vote; associated with the U.S. Senate
# of amendments
Law making process
1. starts in the house
2. must pass the House, the Senate and the president
3. president can veto
4. congress can override the president veto with a 2/3 votes
the smallest unit of election administration
amendment approve process
- takes a 2/3 vote of congress to propose
- takes a 3/4 vote of the state to ratify
English philosopher, who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections
speaker of the house
the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, chosen by and from the majority party in the House
- met in Philadelphia in 1787
- 55 delegates
- 12 states represented
- George Washington chairmen
Right to keep and bear arms
No illegal search and seizure
Protection against double jeopardy, due process of law, and one does not have to present evidence that convicts oneself
rights of the accused, a public trial without unnecessary delay, a lawyer, an impartial jury, and to know who your accusers are and the nature of the charges and evidence against you
No cruel or unusual punishment
right to vote regardless of color or race
Repeal of Prohibition
18 years of age can vote.
all legal citizens have the equal protection from the law, due process
freedom of assembly
the right of the people to gather peacefully and to petition government
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
A formal complaint before a grand jury which charges the accused with one ore more crimes
a sum of money that the accused may be required to post as a guarantee that he or she will appear in court at the proper time
reasonable cause for issuing a search warrant or making an arrest; more than mere suspicion
as a crime which is punishable by up to a year in jail time.
the fact that they are punishable by prison sentences of greater than one year.
an order for a person to appear and to produce documents or other requested materials
A court order authorizing, or making legal, some official action, such as a search warrant or an arrest warrant.
An attorney employed by the government to represent criminal defenders who cannot afford to pay for a lawyer
part of the 5th amendment, Trial or punishment for the same crime by the same government; forbidden by the Constitution.
a policy that requires most employers take positive steps to remedy the effects of past discriminations
restriction on access to ideas and information
A group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime.
evidence gained as the result of an illegal act by police cannot be used against the person from whom it was seized
Nominating election held to choose party candidates who will run in the general election
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
# of electoral votes of California
more than half
the number of votes cast for a candidate who receives more than any other but does not receive an absolute majority.
House - 2 years
Senators - 6 years
President - 4 years
justices - lifetime
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
A ballot vote in which citizens select a party's nominee for the general election.
people elected by the voters in a presedential election as members of the electoral college
Plessy vs. Ferguson
"separate but equal" doctrine supreme court upheld the constitutionally of jim crow laws
Gideon vs. Wainwright
Lawyer must be appointed to anyone who cannot afford one
Miranda v. Arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
Brown vs. Board of Education
segregation in schools is illegal
McCulloch v. Maryland
necessary and proper clause, state cannot tax the federal government
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Bakke vs. UC Regents
affirmation action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
held that public school curricular student newspapers that have not been established as forums for student expression are subject to a lower level of First Amendment protection than independent student expression or newspapers established (by policy or practice) as forums for student expression.
exemption from penalties, payments or legal requirements, granted by authorities or statute
not protected by the 1 and 14 amendment, three parts to determine if its legal
Free Exercise Clause
A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion.
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
ERA woman's rights
equal rights amendment,"Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.
the government may generally restrict the time, place, or manner of speech, if the restrictions are unrelated to what the speech says and leave people with enough alternative ways of expressing their views.
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband.
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
United States Government: Our Democracy
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
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