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N145 Final
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Terms in this set (85)
the __________________ level of measurement has order but provides no information about distance between values
ordinal
a __________________ level of measurement has a rational zero point.
ratio
the lowest level of measurement is __________________ measurement, which places objects into mutually exclusive categories
nominal
psychological scales yield __________________ level measures
interval
a measure of an interval or ratio scale is often referred to as ...
continuous
distributions with a tail pointing to the left have a __________________ skew
negative
distributions with a tail pointing to the right have a __________________ skew
positive
a bell-shaped curve is a popular name for a __________________ distribution
normal
the most stable, and most frequently used index for central tendency is known as the __________________
mean
a index of central tendency that indicates the most popular value in a distribution is called __________________
mode
the most widely used index of variability is the __________________ deviation
standard
The distributions for 2 nominal level variables can be displayed in a __________________ table
cross-tab contingency
__________________ is the criterion used to establish the risk of a type 1 error that is acceptable
alpha
a __________________ error occurs when a true null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected
type I
a __________________ error is the error committed when a false null hypothesis is accepted
Type II
a type II error can occur when the analysis has insufficient __________________ usually reflecting too small a sample
power
the __________________ of significance establishes the researcher's risk of making a type I error
level
The statistical test used to compare 2 groups means is the __________________
t-test
researchers establish a __________________ interval around a statistic to indicate the range within a population parameter probably lies
confidence
__________________ statistics is the broad class of statistics used to draw conclusions about a population
inferential
the statistical test used to compare means of 3 or more group means is __________________
ANOVA
The index most often used as a correlation coefficient is called __________________
Pearson's R
The statistic r=.85 indicates a strong __________________ relationship between 2 variables
positive
the __________________ test is used to test hypothesis about differences in proportions
chi-squared
multiple __________________ analysis could be used to predict body weight based on data about people's height, gender and caloric intake
regression
in regression analysis, the independent variables are often called __________________ variables
predictor
the index used to estimate internal consistency reliability is __________________
Cronbrach's alpha
the preferred index for assessing test-retest reliability is the __________________
intra-class correlation
Interrater reliability is evaluating __________________ when ratings are dichotomous (presence vs absence of a disease)... cohen's kappa?
interater
Both researchers and consumers of quantitative research must develop an _____________ of the accuracy, meaning, and importance of the study results
interpretation
A famous research precept is that _____________ does not prove that one variable caused another
correlation
_____________ size estimates such as d to help better understand the importance of the results
Effect
The _____________ guideline for preparing research reports include a flow chart documenting participant flow in a study
CONSORT
Researchers should take both the strengths and the _____________ (weaknesses) of their study into account when interpreting their findings
limitations
The _____________ significance of research results is their practical importance to patients' daily lives or to health care decision making
clinical
Results that are non-_____________ are especially difficult to interpret because of the possibility of a type II error
significant
Confidence intervals provide information about this: __________ of results
precision
An analysis of threats to study validity is a way to address this: ____________ of results
credibility
A consideration of how study limitations could be corrected in subsequent research is part of this: ____________ of results
implications
In assessing this, consideration is given to the characteristic of the study sample and the research setting: ________________ of results
generalizability
Effect size information can be especially useful for considering this: _____________ of effects and importance
magnitude
An analysis of the success of the researcher's "proxies" is an approach to this: ___________ of results & ____________ of results
credibility; generalizability
Biases can reduce this: ____________ of results
credibility
Statements about the utility of findings for clinical practice are part of this: ____________ of results
implications
___________ (minimal important change): focus is on individual scores, not between groups
MIC
A widely used benchmark for clinical significance at the individual level is the minimal important change (_________)
MIC
Individuals change scores in different groups can be classified as exceeding or not exceeding the MIC threshold and then compared in a ____________ analysis
responder
A research _____________ that is actually null is difficult to evaluate through standard statistical methods
hypothesis
____________ (Number needed to treat): an estimate of how many people would need to receive an intervention to prevent one undesirable outcome, computed by dividing 1 by the value of the absolute risk reduction (ARR)
NNT
An important aspect of interpretation for clinical decision making is the degree of ___________ of effects, usually communicated through confidence intervals
precision
Researcher's interpretations are presented in the _____________ section of a report
discussion
1. The appropriate statistical test for a research question that explores the relationship between 2 quantitative variables is
a. Chi-square
b. Anova
c. Correlation
d. t-test
D
2. Flaws in a research design are a more serious limitation to the credibility of results than are gaps in the literature review
a. True
b. False
a
3. The CONSORT guidelines recommend that researchers include a flow chart to document participant flow throughout the study
a. True
b. False
A
The range: indexes of ___________
variability
In lay terms, an average: indexes of ____________
central tendency
Descriptor(s) of a distribution of scores: indexes of _________ central tendency and variability
both
Descriptor(s) of how heterogeneous a set of values is: indexes of _____________
variability
The standard deviation: indexes of
______________
variability
The mode: indexes of ______________
central tendency
The median: indexes of ________________
central tendency
A normal distribution: indexes of ___________ central tendency nor variability
neither
The mean: indexes of_____________
central tendency
Mean: average of all numbers (most __________)
stable
Range: highest minus the lowest score in the distribution (only based on two scores: ___________)
unstable
Mode: the number that occurs most frequently (identifies the most ____________ value)
• i.e. 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4
o 2 is the mode
popular
Hours spent in labor before childbirth: ___________ scale
ratio
Religious affiliation: _________ scale
nominal
Time to first postoperative voiding: __________ scale
ratio
Responses to a single Likert Scale item: __________ scale
ordinal
Temperature on the centigrade scale: __________ scale
interval
Nursing specialty area: ___________ scale
nominal
Health status on the following scale: poor, fair, good, excellent: ___________ scale
ordinal
Pulse rate: __________ scale
ratio
Score on a 25 item Likert Scale: ____________ scale
interval
Highest academic degree attained (BSN, MS, DNP): _____________ scale
ordinal
APGAR scores: ___________ scale
ordinal
Marital status: ___________ scale
nominal
____________ Statistics- t tests, anova
Inferential
______________ statistics: Used to synthesize and describe data
Descriptive
____________: (lowest level) involves using numbers simply to categorize attributes
Nominal
_____________: ranks people on an attribute
Ordinal
____________: occurs when there is rank and a specified difference between them
Interval
_____________: (highest level) have a meaningful zero and provide information about the absolute magnitude of the attribute
Ratio
_______________ Distributions: an arrangement of values from lowest to highest a count or percentage of how many times a value occurred
frequency
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