Blair-Broker, Thinking About Psychology, 3e, Module 28
Terms in this set (27)
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Founder of psychoanalysis, a controversial theory about the workings of the unconscious mind.
Freud's theory of personality; also, a therapeutic technique that attempts to provide insight into thoughts and actions by exposing and interpreting the underlying unconscious motives and conflicts.
A view of personality that retains some aspects of Freudian theory (such as the importance of unconscious thought processes) but is less likely to see unresolved childhood conflicts as a source of personality development.
A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
According to Freud, a region of the mind holding information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness.
According to Freud, a region of the mind that is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.
The ability to grow and thrive in the face of challenges and to bounce back from adversity.
The part of personality that, according to Freud, consists of unconscious, psychic energy and strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, negotiates among the demands of the id, the superego, and reality; operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on different parts of the body.
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
Neo-Freudian who thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensions in the development of personality.
According to Adler, a condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings.
Carl Jung [YOO-ng] (1875-1961)
Neo-Freudian who believed that humans share a collective unconscious.
Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our ancestors.
Karen Horney [HORN-eye] (1885-1952)
Neo-Freudian who found psychoanalysis negatively biased toward women and believed cultural variables are the foundation of personality development.
A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of inner thoughts and feelings.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach inkblot test
The most widely used projective test is a set of 10 inkblots designed to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
A perspective that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual's freedom to choose, and the individual's capacity for personal growth.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Humanistic psychologist who proposed the hierarchy of needs, with self-actualization as one of the ultimate psychological needs.
According to Maslow, an ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to realize our full and unique potential.
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Humanistic psychologist who developed client-centered therapy and stressed the importance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth.
unconditional positive regard
According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question "Who am I?"
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