Upgrade to remove ads
WHAP Final Fall Exam Review
Terms in this set (94)
What event starts it?
The invention of agriculture by a woman
What is the difference between foraging and agricultural societies?
Foraging - hunt for food and water, nomadic, follow a herd of animals for a long time to get food Agricultural - settle in one place, plant crops and food that way, sometimes get attacked by other agricultural societies when their crops fail,
What time period does the term pre-agricultural refer to?
What does the word "disparity" mean?
A great difference between two things
What was the major effect of the Neolithic Revolution on the way people lived their lives now?
Instead of people moving around and looking for food, people settled in one spot and farmed for their food
How did population change in societies that previously relied on hunting and gathering after the development of agriculture?
The population doubled in 1000 years, new social organizations were formed, and people settled in permanent locations
Why did organized government arise?
Because people settled in a one location and there needed to be order for the population
What is a patriarchal society?
A male dominated society
Contrast cultural diffusion to independent development
Cultural Diffusion is the influence of several cultures into a new variety of their own culture. Independent Development has the particular region making their own culture without any influence. They both are processes of making a new empire/region.
What distinguishes a river valley civilization from a classical civilization?
Larger durable governments and larger and bigger empires
What are some changes that are associated with the end of the classical period (200 CE-600 CE?)
Monotheistic religions and bigger empires
What was the Code of Hammurabi and what did it say about Babylonian society?
It was the law code for the Babylonian Empire and it said the standards for punishments for breaking laws; i.e An eye for an eye
How did the geography of Greece influence its political and cultural development?
Islands made it impossible for an empire to unite Greece, made city states instead or Poleis, each city state developed culturally at different rates and each had a different cultural thing about them; i.e Athens - warfare and military & Athens - philosophy and knowledge
What impact did the Phoenicians have on Greece?
What is the major impact of Alexander the Great's conquests?
He united the Greek states and he spread their culture to the rest of the world during the Hellenistic Age
How did Greek science and technology affect other parts of the world?
It was spread by Alexander the Great and then incorporated into other cultures like the Romans.
Compare Roman and Han societies. How were merchants regarded in each?
Roman - less social mobility than China, more monumental building projects, merchants are accepted more
Han - more social mobility with the Civil Service Exam System, merchants were the lowest class, and not many building structures
BOTH - Have engineering projects, monumental building, new religion shows up (Christianity + Buddhism), patriarchal society, grew too large to where the borders were invaded
What was the major trade route between the Roman and Han Empires?
What were the causes of the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Han dynasty?
Too large to control borders, and nomadic invasions
What led to the fall of the Roman, Han, and Gupta empires?
The Huns (nomadic hordes in general), Grew way too large to be controlled, Population decline + disease
How did large centralized empires, such as the Han, Persian, and Roman empires, extend their military power?
They built roads, supply lines, and defensive walls.
What kind of infrastructure did they put in place to supply and move their troops?
Roads, highway systems, walls, Great Wall of China, Roman Highway
What effects did the fall of empires have on culture and politics in the respective region?
Europe in Middle Ages
China makes a new dynasty
India becomes a separate state
Gender roles in Han and Roman Empires
Han: Women lived in a quiet life devoted to primarily their families
They had the opportunity in this dynasty to gain an education and rise to a higher power
Still somewhat patriarchal society; men arranged marriage and oversee the family's activities. Some upper classwomen were educated to help husbands.
Roman: Women could sometimes have freedom of their own (Sparta + Athens), still patriarchal - headed by the most senior male figure (paterfamilias), taught to be a good wife, could get an education
How does the Mandate of Heaven affect China?
Emperors blessing from god to rule
What were the Great Wall and the Grand Canal and why did the Chinese build them?
Monumental building projects and connection/unity (BOTH), built for defense (Wall), transport goods from North to South (Canal)
Describe Chinese views about Buddhism. What issues did many upper class Chinese have with this new religion? Why?
- Bureaucrats be against Buddhism because it is a foreign religion.
- Confucianism is superior.
- Society and Emperor are adapted to Confucianism.
- Buddhists were persecuted.
Describe the Confucian social order. What role did women play?
- Believed in 5 relationships of social hierarchy: ruler to subject, father to son, husband to wife, elder to younger, and friend to friend. Civil service exams will lead you to a higher rank.
- Foot-binding played most on women roles. - Women couldn't own property, forbidden in remarrying in Song Dynasty
Compare and contrast the social structures of China and India between 600 B.C.E. and 600 C.E.
The rankings of merchants - bottom, Brahmins are the top, social mobility in China and NOT India
Describe the organization of labor in China.
Used corvee, forced labor unpaid system
Analyze factors leading to the rise and fall of cities.
- Government corruption
- Poor economy/lack of resources
- Nomadic Invasions
Analyze how manufacturing was organized
Silk manufacturing and porcelain, the government controls all of the luxury commodities (monopolies)
What was the name of the Japanese warrior class?
Describe the social hierarchy in Japan during the feudal period.
- Ronin (Not necessary)
What were the responsibilities of women in feudal Japan?
- Men were valued more than women but they were the backbone that protected and cared for their family.
- Throughout these times, Japanese women were mothers, entertainers, and even warriors.
- The amount of freedom a woman received depended greatly on a her social class. Women of higher class had to get married and the decision laid in the hands of her family
Review the main beliefs of all major belief systems.
- Caste System - a rigid, immobile social class system
- Reincarnation - rebirth
- Karma - good and bad deeds
- NO Caste System
- Eightfold Path - guidelines for living for followers of Buddhism.
- The belief that the path to Nirvana is through right views, aspirations, speech, conduct, livelihood, endeavor, mindfulness, meditation
- Four Nobel Truths
- Filial Piety - respect for parents or elders
- Five Relationships
- Natural order; All people should live in nature with harmony
- Follow a universal force - Dao
- Holy book called the Torah
- Ten Commandments - guidelines for living in the Jewish religion
- Holy book called the Bible
- Followers believe Jesus was the son of God - Ten Commandments - guidelines for living for the followers of Christianity
- Pope - leader of the Catholic Church
- Holy book called the Koran (Qur'an)
- Followers are called Muslims
- Five Pillars - guidelines for living for the followers of Islam;
(1) believe in one god, Allah
(2) give alms (charity)
(3) fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan
(4) pilgrimage to Mecca, Holy Land
(5) Pray 5 times a day
Compare/contrast Hinduism and Buddhism.
- Supports Caste System
- Artha- Pursuit of economic well being and honest prosperity
- Kama- Social, physical, and sexual pleasure
- Moksha- Salvation of the soul
- Karma- The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.
- Ahimsa- Belief in non- violence
- Founder- Siddhartha (Buddha)
- Doesn't support Caste System
- Dharma- Buddha's teachings
- Four Noble Truths
- Noble Eightfold Path
- Nirvana- state of enlightenment
- Bodhisattva- a person who is able to reach nirvana but delays entry into nirvana out of compassion in order to help those who were suffering to reach nirvana
- Stupas- Buddhist shrines
- 2 sects- Hinayana (Lesser) and Mahayana (Greater)
Compare/contrast monotheistic religions.
- Holy book: The Torah- oral and written law of Jews
- Followers: Jews
- God: Yahweh
- Founder: Abraham
- Place of Worship: Synagogue
- Believe that God gave Moses the Ten Commandments
- Holy book: The Bible- has the Old Testament and New Testament
- Followers: Christians
- Founder: Jesus of Nazareth
- Place of Worship: Church
- Holy book: The Quran
- Followers: Muslims
- God: Allah
- Founder: Muhammed
^ Believe that Muhammed is the last and greatest prophet of Islam
- Place of Worship: Masjid/ Mosque
- Five Pillars of Islam
- Holy Cities: Mecca, Medina, then Jerusalem
- 2 sects: Shia and Sunni
- Body of Islamic Law: Sharia
All three religions similarities
- Jerusalem- Holy city for all 3 religions
- All believe in one god
- All believe in Abraham as father of faith
- All have roots from Judaism
- All began in Southwest Asia
Compare and contrast the origins and the spread of Christianity and Buddhism before 600 C.E. (influences by other religions, role of women, role of trade networks)
- Begins by Siddhartha Gautama
- Originated in India
- Spreads thru trade
- Not easily accepted in China
ANSWER: Started somewhere and found a home somewhere else (not accepted at first) India and Asia, monastic and monasteries, equality, both have roles of women going to monasteries, both of them spread from missionary and trade
- Begins in Europe (Rome)
- Begins by Jesus
- Spreads by his group of people
- Persecuted in Rome
What are the Vedic religions?
pre-Hindu religions; Aryan and Dravidian (Upanishads)
What role did caste play in them?
Brahma, dharma, moksha, karma create the Hindu religion
What role did books play in Judaism and Hinduism?
- The holy book of Judaism is the Torah, it is believed to be the guide to their lives straight from god.
- The Vedas are the holy texts for Hinduism and contains complete knowledge of this life and beyond
Describe Islamic architecture.
- Islamic architecture varies throughout the Islamic World.
- Islamic architecture frequently blends with local architecture throughout the areas controlled by the Islamic caliphates.
- In Spain for example, the Moorish architecture blends traditional Spanish architecture with the rounded arches and geometric shapes that can be found throughout the Islamic world.
- Horseshoe arches, arabesque, minarets, peppermint arches, etc.
What was Islam's expansion most important effect on the civilization of medieval Europe?
- The knowledge and ideas that spread with the Empire.
It was through the Islamic world that Europe was reintroduced to the works of Greek philosophers, scientist and astronomers. One area of particular importance was the transmission of medical knowledge, as seen in the Islamic medical books, which rely heavily on Greek teachings.
What type of knowledge did Arabs, Indians and European societies transfer during by 1200 CE?
Classical knowledge (Greek and Roman knowledge), spread of numerals and decimal system
Describe Arab expansion. How were the Muslim armies able to expand so rapidly?
- Spreading from the Arabian Peninsula throughout the Middle East/North Africa and Spain, Arab expansion occurred in large areas with relatively large urban centers, like Damascus, Cairo, Tunis, etc.
- Early on in Islamic history, under the Rashidun caliphate—the reign of the first four caliphs, or successors, from 632 to 661 CE—and the Umayyad caliphate, Arab Muslim forces expanded quickly.
Describe Islamic art.
Couldn't depict living things, against religion
Used arabesque and calligraphy instead on the roof of mosques
In what areas of Northern Africa did Christianity remain after the expansion of Islam?
Ethiopia and Egypt
Analyze the role of slavery.
- Slaves usually are prisoners of war, criminals, and people in debt.
- People will go on a nearby tribes and kidnap people and bring them back as slaves. - Muslim believes in the economic trade and not the slavery which will cause the slave trade to heighten in Africa, slave trade increases til 1800s.
Analyze factors leading to the decline and growth of cities.
Cities grew as trade flourished but outside nomadic invasions became the downfall of cities. Invaders targeted the wealthy cities to make a complete destruction of the empire.
Analyze the role of trade and manufacturing.
Promote trade and the trade networks, slavery is more common in the Middle East production, the role of slavery is being used in agricultural production.
Why did it survive while the Western Roman Empire collapsed?
The West was more militarized and well defended and also had many good relations and trade routes
What effect did the empire have on the religion of Slavic people?
The most important effect the Byzantine Empire had on the Slavic people was the conversion of the Slavs to Orthodox Christianity.
Rise of Russia and Moscow.
- Religion adopting, gets invaded by Mongols, and makes it a tributary system.
- Moscovite is the name of the family that gets rid of the Mongols. Prince Michael and Ivans will rise up to go against the Mongols and the city is named after them.
Describe the type of architecture that developed in Europe around 1100 CE.
- It is characterized by tall pointed arches, flying buttress and high ceilings, domes, stained glass
- Mostly commonly seen in cathedrals built in Europe during this time.
Describe the Viking invasions and how they were able to defeat their opponents.
- The Viking invasions of the 9th century came at a time from the North (Scandinavia)
- Government had completely collapsed after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the feudal system was beginning to take shape. - The Vikings used rivers to travel throughout Europe and take control of various areas.
- Most of the areas were rural and few were urban cities. (Ability to sail up rivers, strong military might, pillage and plunder)
- Expansion relied on military might.
What was life like for women in Europe around 1000 CE
- Women were considered beneath their male counterparts and were expected to manage the household supplies and finances.
- In Europe, unlike in some other place women had a few rights, namely they could expect to be the only wife to their husband, as polygamy was outlawed.
- Not much education for women
What were the responsibilities of women in feudal Europe?
Managing households and finances, always behind the scenes
What were some of the cause of the crusades?
1. Pope Urban II started the holy wars because of "Deus volt" or "God wills it"
2. Muslims and Christians argued about who should have the Holy land
3. The desire to take control of Jerusalem away from Muslims.
4. The belief that fighting in a crusade would give you forgiveness of sins.
5. The chance to travel and make money.
6. The desire to defend the Byzantine empire from the Turks.
7. The opportunity for younger sons of European nobles to get new land in the Middle East.
8. The possibility of opening up new trade routes between Europe and the Middle East.
9. Unite Western Europe nobles and rulers to support the Papacy and the authority of the Pope.
Who are the crusaders?
- People who responded to the calling to get back land from the Muslims (Christians)
- Knights who traveled on pilgrimage to the Holy Land (Jerusalem) to get rid of the Islamic influence there by killing Muslims
Describe the relationship between lord and vassal.
Lord gives vassal land in exchange for loyalty and service, in turn the vassals (work for the king) are loyal to the king (Example: The lords were the boss and the vassals are the employees, land is money.)
Who was Joan of Arc and what was her significance?
- Joan of Arc was born a female French peasant, believing that she was called into service by God.
- Joan of Arc dressed as a man and went to fight the British in the Hundred Years war, a battle between Britain and France over French land. Controls the French army and helped with wars against Britain.
- She is recognized as the national hero of France and the "Maid or Orleans".
What were the major artistic advancements made during the Renaissance?
Revival of Greece-Roman literature, art, culture; depict religious figures and stories, emphasis on the individual, and the 6 characters of art. (Themes and characteristics of art)
What was the bubonic plague and what effect did it have on global populations?
Epidemic that spread by fleas, rats and Trade
- Killed over 25 million people
- Less money and jobs for people who lived
- Trade spread diseases, rats and fleas
- Economy falls, population decline, production drops
Describe labor systems in feudal Europe.
Self-sufficient, manorialism, three-field system
Where was the Mongol Empire located?
On the steppes of northern Mongolia
Describe the Mongol Empire's role in trans- Eurasian trade.
Saw the importance in trade, so they guarded and protected the Silk Road
What caused the growth of Islam there before 1450?
- Teaches equality
- Easy to learn
- Traders and herders spread it wherever they went
- No priesthood
- "portable" because nomads and merchants spread it along trade routes --> brings culture diffusion between community.
From 900 CE-1450 CE, who controlled trade in Sub-Sahara Africa and what is the major export?
What were the Bantu migrations and impact did they have on sub-Saharan Africa?
- The Bantu migrations were the migration of the Bantu peoples from southern Africa to the East coast of Africa.
- The effects of this migration can be seen in the diffusion of iron metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa and the development of the Swahili language.
What led to the spread of Bantu-speaking peoples over southern Africa before 1400 C.E.?
The spread of Bantu-speaking people over Southern Africa before 1400 C.E. was sparked by the need to find new areas of food and trade.
How did Islam spread to West Africa?
Trade Routes, merchants
Analyze factors leading to the rise of cities.
In economic disparity, cities will be built, as trade flourishes and economics prosper, cities will be built. In time of invasions, cities will be falling. (A question on China)
Analyze gender structures.
Women in Africa had much more equality, had businesses and own property, could be co-rulers/"Mother of the King", have polygamous relationships, and many African tribes were matrilineal.
Christianity in Africa.
The Africans incorporated their own religions such as animism or shamanism into Christianity.
Ethiopia and Egypt
Describe how the Inca and Aztecs built their empires.
Analyze labor systems in the Americas.
Corvee - Giving your time to the government, Coercive (forced labor system)
Describe gender structures in the Americas.
Patriarchal society like the caste system and the priests have a lot of political and social power
Describe Indian Ocean trade and who was involved in this network.
- The Indian Ocean trade network were trade routes on the Indian Ocean near East Africa, Middle East, and Asia.
- People got there by flowing through monsoon winds; dhows and junks.
- Trade was decentralized and cooperative - no empire controlled the trade network.
- Indian, Arab (Islamic), Chinese, and African merchants participated in this international trade network.
Describe the travels of Ibn Battuta.
- He went to Persia, Africa, and India in his travels.
- His main reason to travel was to go on a Hajj, or a Pilgrimage to Mecca, as all good Muslims want to do.
- But his traveling went on for about 29 years and visited 44 modern countries which were then mostly under the governments of Muslim leaders of the World of Islam, or "Dar al-Islam".
What religions spread along the Indian Ocean trade routes? How did they spread?
The port cities were places of multiple religions like Buddhism and Islam would mix.
What language was developed as a result of the Indian Ocean trade?
Swahili (mix of Bantu & Arabic)
What commodity was the second most important commodity in the trans-Saharan trade of the 15th century?
Describe the role of the monsoon in trade in the Indian Ocean.
It determined the trade route/network for merchants.
What impact did the Indian Ocean trade have on urbanization in East Africa and South East Asia? Give examples.
Just like China, more trade means more cities will grow. (Ex: West Africa - Mali, more universities, architectures and Islamic religion)
What was the main export of sub-Saharan Africa before 1450CE?
Gold and salt
Explain how wind patterns and oceanic currents helped trade in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean.
They assisted transport, making it easier for ships to transport goods
Explain the role of Mali in international trade. What was its main export?
Mali had major cities of commercial exchange and its economy consisted of the one of the main exports: Gold
Explain how increased trade led to the growth of cities in Afro-Eurasia in the period 1000-1450.
Islamic Empires trade with Africa
- Post-Crusades = Middle East trades with Europe, trade WILL flourish with new technology, knowledge, and new wealth.
How did the decimal system spread from India to Europe? When did that happen?
Trade networks and communications, 600 CE to 1450 CE, located Afro-Eurasia
Describe Middle Eastern trade from 100 CE-1450 CE.
Camels and ships of the Indian Ocean were involved, and spices and silks were a common commodity.
Trade between China, India, and Sub-Saharan Africa
Why dd people migrate to Africa in the first place?
Famine, natural disasters, drought, and invasions
What continent did the women have more power?
Domestication of Animals and Food
Mules, horses, and corn
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Ap world history: Period 3 thematic questions
AP world post classical period Smith
AP World History Unit 3 Study Guide
AP World History Time Period 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Law Enforcement (Index Crimes, Misdemeanor, and Fe…
AP Physics 1 Formulas
Chemistry - Practice Naming/Writing Formulas of Co…
Polyatomics to remember!!!