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Western Civ Test 12/20
Terms in this set (51)
Gave the nobles rights that couldn't be taken away, the Monarch must obey the laws of England Townspeople had legal rights, no new taxes without consulting the lords, and no arbitrary arrest or imprisonment (there had to be proof).
Joan of Arc
Told Charles VII that God sent her to save France. Led an army against the English. She was captured by the English and burned due to witchcraft.
Battle of Hastings
this was a fight with William the conquer against Harold Winston and this fight was about William wanted to be king
Most famous philosopher who said that faith and reason are in harmony
A standard legal system for every citizen of England, made up of laws taken from each local fief.
Someone who is not a part of the church.
A group that gives a verdict in a court based on the evidence given during the case.
Government has to follow established rules.
A collection of representatives from all over England who met to approve taxes and give the King advice. Eventually became two houses: The house of Lords and The House of Commons
The papal order that forbade church services in the kingdom
Similar to the Parliament in England. Gathers representatives from each of the 3 estates in France to advise the King and approve taxes.
"power of the purse"
British parliament had to gain power because the king had to ask it for money
church person (who isn't part of the church/preist) who presented bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office.
Holy Roman Empire
large area of land in the middle of Europe which couldn't be controlled by a king because there was so much land for the lords to do what they wanted
moved the pope from the border of Rome to the edge of France
Concordat of Worms
Declared that the Church had the sole the power to elect bishops with spiritual authority
Series of military expeditions in parts of Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean, which European Christians tried to win control of the Holy Lands.
Papal Supremacy & Papal Consent
The Pope is higher than the King. The approval of the Pope
The city were all holy things occurred
In Israel and it was the land that they were trying to take in the Crusades
Council of Clermont
Byzantine Empire / Constantinople
a group of people who would go around and integrate and torture muslums and jews to make sure they were actually following christanity in spain
Campaign to drive out Muslims. Isabella and Ferdinand supported it. 15,000 plus people fled Spain.
The Black Death
Plague that killed ⅓ - ⅔ of Europe
Language spoken by the people in a region
Hundred Years War
Both nations wanted full control of Normandy. England and France were trade rivals competing for control of the English Channel.
Method that used reasons to support Christians beliefs
What was the Magna Carta? Why was is this document so important to modern day society?
It was a document that gave nobles rights, made the monarch have to obey laws of England, gave townspeople rights, no new taxes, and no imprisonment without reason. The Magna Carta was a building block for the laws of society today, many rules are the same.
What were the "Crusades?" Explain the cause of the Crusades. Who originally called for them. What were his motivations? Who fought in most of the crusades? What motivated them to travel and fight during this time period? What were the major impacts of the Crusades on Europe?
The Crusades were battles that were fought to receive/get the Holy Land. Pope Urban II called for the Crusades to start. The Muslims and the Christians were fighting. They were trying to get the Holy Land for themselves. The economy grew due to the Crusades; increased the taste for goods, built fleets, and there was a growth in the money economy.
What was the Black Death? Explain where this horrible disease started and the route it took in order to infect most of Europe. What were the symptoms? What method did it use to spread from place to place? How did this epidemic impact European society?
The black death was the plague that killed ⅓ -⅔ of the population. It spread throughout Europe because of trade and travelers. It first spread by a trading ship with infected fleas and some rats on it that went from city to city and infected them. Symptoms were black skin, skin bursting, throwing up and death. This impacted European society because it ended Feudalism. Everyone was dying out like the serfs. It also impacted the church because people at the church said sinners were getting infected and then they started to get the plague so everyone had second thoughts on the beliefs of the church and started to look at scientific beliefs.
What was the Hundred Years War? Who fought in it? Describe some of the advantages of both sides, including the role of Joan of Arc. What was the conclusion of this conflict and how did it impact these countries moving into the 1500s?
It was a battle over control of land. It was against England and France. The English could fire multiple arrows in the time it took the French to fire one. The French used cannons to destroy the castles. Joan of Arc led the French through most battles but then the English captured and burned her. They both became nation-states and changing nature undermines feudalism.
William the Conqueror
he limits castle building creates the doomsday book which made so he can tax everything people have he was the father of Henery I and Matilda who was not allowed to rule since she was a woman so she made it so her son could rule as soon as she died her son was Henery II
when Charlemagne dies he lives has thrown to just his children this was before you passed it down to your oldest male child this ruined the government so they wanted to hire a pushover who wouldn't tell them what to do so they found Hugh carpet who was a low ranking noble his successors were able to do alot but he wasn't
inherited alot of land in France he got alot from his marriage because his wife was from one of the richest parts of England and divorced a king she turned his sons against him there were only a few people who stood by him he centralized power in England by making a central court system this made the rules for all the territory and laws of the land the laws were enforced by juries his biggest setback was trying to do that with the church when he dies he left his throne to his oldest son Richard the Lionheart who really didn't do anything he dies without any children and thrown moved to king Jon who was his younger brother
Philip II (Augustus)
becomes a very strong king almost as strong as the king of England gets most of the land from England back to France this caused king John to need to raise taxes he was the most powerful ruler he tried to fight with the church but couldn't win so he joined them to get more power he sets the bar for further kings as Europe turned into a limited monarchy France turned into an absolute monarchy passed down kingdom to grandson Louis IX
tried to be really thought but it backfired so he was forced to sign the Magna Carta this made it so he couldn't raise taxes anymore this later turned into parliament he died by overeating and his son who was very young reissued Magna Carta and this made it a normal law the family eventually turned into Edward I
had a very long rule and was a very loved ruler went on alot of battles and was seen as an embodiment of chivalry
spent alot of time bringing uncontrolled parts of England into control successful in wells and failed in Scotts spent alot of time standing the laws saw parliament as a tool for him to use added the house of commons to parliament
was a very effective king because of the tricks he could play on people he took on the church and won got the ability the tax the clergy pope tried to excommunicate him but the pope was killed he was able to make all the Cardinals be fresh and so they would appoint a French pope he made a fresh parliament that actually worked this made him stronger unlike in England
Richard "The Lionhearted"
know for being a very good soldier always had to be on a move because of how big of land he had to manage people liked him but he really didn't get much done which caused knights starting to rebel parliament had more money than the king parliament would bring the kings with money
Muslim ruler who reconquered Jerusalem which started the third crusade where Richard the lionhearted fought him he was very noble and made a deal that if he could keep Jerusalem and let the Christians in he was a very model person
Pope Urban II
called for the first crusade not quite sure he wantedshowed how powerful the church was crusade would be all the people in to fight another religion
ruler of the Byzantine empire which was what was left of the old Roman empire didn't have many land crusaders showed up and took it from him wasn't that much of a good leader and wasn't that important
Pope Gregory VII
comes out of the Cluniac reforms thought they could get power away from the church made it so only there pope could control who was in the church starts fighting with Henery IV about who gets to appoint the bishops Pope or the monarch? the pope wins and is able to appoint bishops did this by excommunicating Henery IV after he got back in the church Henery IV chased him out of town finally, pope gets to appoint bishops and king can decide to give them land with that position
Pope Boniface VIII
the guy who tried to fight Phillip IV he lost his fight against the parliament signed Unam sanctum which made it so pope was above man and under god but had to agree with rulers because their armies were bigger than the church
holy roman empire fought over Gregory VII about who was going to appoint bishops died naturally and passed on kingship
archbishop of Canterbury was the friend of Henery II who thought he could get him to do what he wanted when he backed down Henery the II got his knight to kill him in his own church
a questionable merchant who traveled all over, wrote down everything he saw eventually snuck back to his hometown and nobody believed his book and it eventually made everyone realize there was more to the world than just Europe
a pope who lead the church at its peak, reorganized cannon law which was church law which made the church super powerful
Joan of Arc
edward the III tried to invade France which started a 100-year war France was just about to lose when the king died and his son had mental issues she was only a teenager who claimed she could hear god she used for soldiers and the king gave her some and she started winning battles which saved France
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