Archaeology / Anthropology ANTH 203 Exam 1

Quiz over chapters 1-6
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A total station is:
Is accurate to +/- 3 millimeters
Radiocarbon dating was able to determine that the Shroud of Turin:
Dates to medieval times between AD 1260 and 1390
Radiocarbon dating cannot reliably date anything older than about:
45,000 years
Who developed the technique of dendrochronology, or tree ring dating?
A. E. Douglas
What is anthropology?
The exploration of human diversity and culture across all time and space
What are the four subfields of anthropology?
Biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology
Which is NOT true about culture?
Culture is passed on genetically to future generations
A drawback to GIS databases is
They require an enormous amount of time to construct.
Their enormous cost makes their use in archaeology impractical.
While they are able to generate spectacular maps, their use beyond graphics has not been demonstrated.
All of the above is true about GIS databases
GIS helped to determine which of the following about Chacoan roads ?
They do not follow the path of least resistance, supporting the hypothesis that the roads fulfilled more of a symbolic than economic purpose
A UTM grid is:
A grid that divides the world into 1x1 meter squares.
The same things as a Universal Tranverse Mercator grid.
Is very useful for archaeological survey.
All of the above answers are true
A limitation of noninvasive archaeology techniques is that remote sensing techniques
Are expensive and cannot work everywhere
Once archaeologists decide on their survey sample universe, they must then decide on the sample fraction. The sample fraction is?
The percentage of the sample universe that is surveyed
Which of the following formation processes could result in reverse stratigraphy?
Faunalturbation
Floralturbation and
Cryoturbation
In an undisturbed deposit, a stone tool found in a stratum overlying a stratum containing potsherds is most likely
Younger than the potsherds
Mary Leakey's discovery of fossil footprints in volcanic ash at Laetoli was important because
The volcanic ash had preserved the footprints of at least two bipedal hominids AND it proved that hominids manufactured and used stone tools AFTER the origin of bipedalism.
How could an archaeologist tell if flowing water rather than human behavior was responsible for the deposition of artifacts at an archaeological site
Artifacts and unmodified rocks might be imbricated, AND artifacts and unmodified rocks might be oriented to the direction of flow.
What could account for chronologically older artifacts being found above younger artifacts in a stratigraphic sequence?
Faunalturbation (e.g., rodent burrows), Cultural disturbance (e.g., prehistoric digging of a hearth or pit) and Graviturbation
The upper part of a soil where active organic and mechanical decomposition of geological and organic material occurs is the
The A horizon
An artifact discarded or lost by an earlier population and picked up and reused by a later population is an example of
Reclamation process
Charles Lyell's 1865 book The Geologic Evidences for the Antiquity of Man was important because it
Documented the fact that humans had lived with now extinct animals in the distant past.
The year AD 1859 was an important year in the history of human thought because it was the year that
Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species
AND
The scientific community declared support for the remote antiquity of humankind
both answers are correct
Classical archaeology is
The branch of archaeology that studies the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, such as Greece and Rome and the Near East
The following contributed to the support and discovery of deep time
Charles Darwin publishes his influential book On the Origin of Species
AND Jacques Bocher de Crevecoeur de Perthes found ancient axe heads in the gravels of the Somme River
Why was it so difficult for Europeans during the early 19th century to accept the fact that Native Americans had built the mounds?
Believing that a superior race had built the mounds fit nicely into the social and political context of the times, helping to justify colonialism.
Culture is
An integrated system of beliefs, traditions, and customs that govern or influence a person's behavior
Which of the following is NOT true of science?
It always provides the right answer to a question.
The text argues that which of the following perspectives is the most useful for archaeology?
Both a scientific perspective AND a humanistic perspective (it's a combination of the two)
Archaeology can best be defined as
The study of the past through the systematic recovery and analysis of material remains
The following statement regarding the Scientific Method is false
Science is infallible and will always deliver the right answer on the first try.
Which of the following is not true of a person's culture?
It is biologically controlled.
The term used to describe one trip across a survey area, general in a North/South or East/West direction
Azimuth
A test excavation would be most appropriate in which of the following situations?
When trying to determine a site's potential for answering a research question.
The process of flotation is based on the principle that:
Carbonized plant remains and very small bone fragments will float when submerged in water, while heavier items (including dirt) will not.
Matrix sorting is a technique that
Involves hand-sorting of processed bulk soil samples for minute artifacts and ecofacts
The importance of plants in prehistoric diets was largely unknown until which of the following techniques was used?
Flotation.
The index fossil concept:
Allows widely separated strata to be correlated and assigned to the same time period if they contain the same fossils.
Is the idea that strata containing similar fossil assemblages are of similar ages.
Enables archaeologists to characterize and date strata within sites using distinctive artifact forms that research shows to be diagnostic of a particular period of time.
All of the above are correct
Giovanni Battista Belzoni stood apart from other antiquarians of his time due to the fact that:
He took notes and made illustrations and observations of the places he visited. (In 1819 he published a book about his travels and discoveries: Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia.)