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Terms in this set (72)
Any teaching that goes against the generally held beliefs of the RCC, viewed as a disease
As a distraction
How did the regular clergy view luxury and comforts?
by selling indulgences to the public
How was Pope Leo X planning on paying for St. Peter's Basilica?
by torturing or executing people, believing it was necessary to "cure" heretics from the "disease" of heresy
How would the RCC try to get rid of heresy?
A piece of paper that would grant people pardon for their sins and less time in purgatory
a corrupt clergy member who used indulgences to make himself rich
Pope Leo X
the pope who wanted to build St. Peter's Basilica even though the RCC couldn't afford it
in Catholic teaching, it's the "in between" place in the afterlife where most people go to cleanse their souls from sin
virtually everything: religion, politics, economics, etc.
The RCC eventually had power over what elements of society?
clergy members who lived apart from the world entirely
clergy members who lived "in the world" like everyone else
St. Peter's Basilica
massive structure Pope Leo X wanted to build
1) they were the only ones who could read/write
2) they would educate future clergy
3) they would provide healthcare to the outcasts
4) they would house weary travelers
5) they would provide food to the poor and needy
What role did the clergy play in society?
it was called "Roman" because its capital was in Rome, it was called "Catholic" because that word means "universal" and it was the only church at the time
Why was the church called the "Roman Catholic Church"?
the mountains led to the following:
1) no trade/travel/communication
2) the formation of city-states
3) no national loyalty or patriotism
How did geography shape life in Greece?
democracy, "artsy fartsy," world's best navy
What were the characteristics of Athenian society?
1) they didn't want to get the plague themselves
2) they were afraid the plague was an action of the gods
3) they wanted to check on their crops
4) they wanted to check on their slaves
Why did Sparta run away after Athens was struck with a plague during the Peloponnesian War?
1) they couldn't trade on land
2) they couldn't farm on land
3) sea trade was expensive
4) Sparta had freed their slaves
5) they had to raise taxes to pay for sea trade
6) people were grumpy about the raised taxes and became less loyal
7) Persia threatened to help Sparta defeat them
Why was Athens in a very bad situation heading into the last phase of the Peloponnesian War?
great series of wars between Athens and Sparta
formed by Greek city-states to fight off the invading Persians
Battle of Mantinea
largest land battle of the Peloponnesian War
the island west of Greece that Athens aimed to take during the Peloponnesian War
an important gateway for trade that Athens and Sparta fought over in the last phase of the Peloponnesian War
oligarchy, militaristic, world's best infantry
What were the characteristics of Spartan society?
when two small countries fight but are supported by two rival superpowers
Alcibiades was angry at Athens and told Sparta their plan; meanwhile, Athens arrived in Sicily but took their time to conquer it, which gave Sparta enough time to get there and kick their butts. When Athens wanted to retreat, a lunar eclipse made them believe the gods would punish them if they left, so they stayed and were slaughtered by Sparta
What led to the defeat of Athens on the island of Sicily?
a devout monk who began to question the teachings of the RCC
Why is earning heaven so difficult?
What question did Martin Luther struggle with as a devout monk?
Luther believed the Bible was the only authority, the RCC believed the Bible was the authority only if it was interpreted by them
How did Luther end up disagreeing with the RCC in regards to authority?
issue of salvation
the most important issue that separated Luther from the RCC
by faith; this means they believe that Jesus Christ died for their sins and rose from the dead
According to Luther, how does a person get "saved"?
by believing in Jesus AND doing good works like going to church, getting baptized, confessing sins, etc.
According to the RCC, how does a person get "saved"?
Luther posting his 95 Theses to a church door for public discussion
What was the "spark" that will ignite the Reformation?
October 31, 1517
the date that Luther posted his 95 Theses to a church door for public discussion
The 95 Theses
Luther's written list of problems with the RCC
Diet of Worms
a meeting in the city of Worms called by the RCC to address the issue of Martin Luther and his teachings
he had to be escorted because he was such a controversial figure and he could very well have been killed on the way
How did Luther get to the Diet of Worms?
"Here I stand."
a summary of Luther's statement to the RCC, in which he refuses to recant of his newfound beliefs
Frederick the Wise
man who kidnapped Luther after the Diet of Worms to hide him from the RCC
he was fed up with the confusing political and geographical set up of Europe and the RCC
Why did Frederick the Wise protect Luther?
translated the Bible into German
What did Luther do while he was in hiding?
the common language of a society
technological advancement that enabled Luther's ideas to spread very effectively
1) the sole authority of the Bible
2) the priesthood of all believers
What two ideas did Luther spread after he came out of hiding?
the priesthood of all believers
he belief that a person does not need the RCC to access God, but can access God themselves through faith
the RCC's formal response to the Protestant Reformation
1) reaffirm their doctrines concerning indulgences, purgatory, salvation, etc.
2) recommit to stamping out heresy
3) try to stop the hypocritical corruption of their clergy
4) aim to improve the way they communicate and engage the culture
What did the RCC decide to do as part of their Counter-Reformation?
1) violence between Catholics and Protestants
2) iconoclasm, which is the destruction of religious icons in the RCC
What were the short-term consequences of the Reformation?
1) Martin Luther has taught us that truth exists and it's worth fighting for
2) the view that anyone can read and understand the Bible has led to countless different interpretations and 10,000+ Protestant churches
What were the long-term consequences of the Reformation?
form of government in which one person rules a nation
form of government in which the people vote directly on issues
form of government in which one person rules a collection of nations
form of government in which the people elect representatives to vote directly on issues
form of government in which one person rules without any rule of law
1) they are able to vote
2) they can participate in government by running for office or joining discussions
How are people given power in democracies and republics?
1) ask where the power is
2) ask what the role of the law is
3) never trust what a government says about itself
What should you do to figure out how a government actually works?
to explain reality
What is the purpose of legends?
1) mountains protected it from invaders
2) a river gave them a good water source
3) location in the center of the Italian Peninsula made governance and expansion easier
4) location in the center of the Mediterranean Sea allowed for great trade
How did Rome's geography allow it to grow early on?
leniency led to expansion
How was the Roman Republic able to expand to effectively?
1) he and his two friends informally controlled Rome via a triumvirate
2) he conquered Gaul
3) he gained the loyalty of many military members
4) Roman leaders told him to come home and disband
5) he refused, instead "crossing the Rubicon" to take power in Rome
6) he then systematically dominated all of Rome's territory
7) he was appointed dictator in 46 BC and then dictator for life in 44 BC
How did Julius Caesar rise to power?
if people are happy they don't care about principles of governance
What does history teach us about "the way it works" when people are ruled?
the Roman government overspent its budget, which forced them to raise taxes and hindered their ability to pay for infrastructure and military expenses; both the taxes and inability to pay for these things made the Roman people very grumpy
How did the Roman Empire crumble internally?
era of world history that takes place after Ancient History but before Modern History
they had no national government, which led to the following three things:
1) they had no national law to establish justice
2) they had no national military to hold people accountable and protect them
3) they had no one to collect taxes to pay for infrastructure
How were the Middle Ages decentralized?
to protect or defend
What was the main purpose of castles in the Middle Ages?
1) they were built up on hills
2) they were built into bodies of water or had water surrounding them
3) they were built strong (no windows, high walls, thick stones, etc.)
What features of castles enabled them to fulfill their purpose?
code of chivalry
governed the life of a knight
the ancient city that was fought over during the Crusades and is still fought over today
The Big Three
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
- Jews claimed it because God gave it to them and Solomon's Temple was built there
- Christians claimed it because Jesus Christ was crucified, buried, and rose from the dead there
- Muslims claimed it because the prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven from there
Why did each of the Big Three lay claim to Jerusalem?
a "holy war" to take over the city of Jerusalem
when two or more cultures clash, mix, and have a long-term impact on one another
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