A set of terms you should know if you're learning python.
Terms in this set (215)
The process of formulating a problem, finding a solution, and expressing the solution.
A programming language like Python that is designed to be easy for humans to read and write.
A programming language that is designed to be easy for a computer to execute; also called "machine language" or "assembly language."
A property of a program that can run on more than one kind of computer.
To execute a program in a high-level language by translating it one line at a time.
To translate a program written in a high-level language in to a low-level language all at once, in preparation for later execution.
A program in a high-level language before being compiled.
The output of the compiler after it translates the program.
Another name for object code that is ready to be executed.
Characters displayed by the interpreter to indicate that it is ready to take input from the user.
A program stored in a file - usually one that will be interpreted.
A way of using the Python interpreter by typing commands and expressions at the prompt.
A way of using the Python interpreter to read and execute statements in a script.
A set of instructions that specifies a computation.
A general process for solving a category of problems.
An error in a program.
The process of finding and removing any of the three kinds of programming errors.
The structure of a program.
An error in a program that makes it impossible to parse and therefore impossible to interpret.
An error that is detected while the program is running.
The meaning of a program.
An error in a program that makes it do something other than what the programmer intended.
Any one of the languages that people speak that evolved naturally.
Any one of the languages that people have designed for specific purposes, such as representing mathematical ideas or computer programs; all programing languages are formal languages.
One of the basic elements of the syntactic structure of a program, analogous to a word in a natural language.
To examine a program and analyze the syntactic structure.
An instruction that causes the Python interpreter to display a value on the screen.
A value is one of the basic things a program works with, like a letter or a number.
A variable is a name that refers to a value.
Get data from the keyboard, a file, or some other device.
Display data on the screen or send data to a file or other device.
Perform basic mathematical operations like addition and multiplication.
Check for certain conditions and execute the appropriate code.
Perform some action repeatedly, usually with some variation.
Syntax refers to the structure of a program and the rules about that structure.
or Exceptions errors, Occurs while program is running and something causes it to stop unexpectedly
Semantic errors occur when you use a correct word in the wrong context in program code.
Words are used for their sounds as well as for their meaning, and the whole poem together creates an effect or emotional response. Ambiguity is not only common but often deliberate.
The literal meaning of words is more important, and the structure contributes more meaning. Prose is more amenable to analysis than poetry but still often ambiguous.
The meaning of a computer program is unambiguous and literal, and can be understood entirely by analysis of the tokens and structure.
which doesn't actually print anything on paper. It displays a value on the screen. In this case, the result is the words
are special symbols that represent computations like addition and multiplication. The values the operator is applied to are called operands.
A combination of variables, operators, and values that represents a single result value.
A section of code that represents a command or action. So far, the statements we have seen are assignments and print statements.
rules of precedence
The set of rules governing the order in which expressions involving multiple operators and operands are evaluated.
A category of values. The types we have seen so far are integers, floating- point numbers, and strings
A type that represents whole numbers.
A type that represents numbers with fractional parts.
A type that represents sequences of characters.
A name that refers to a value.
A statement that assigns a value to a variable.
A graphical representation of a set of variables and the values they refer to.
A reserved word that is used by the compiler to parse a program; you cannot use keywords like if, def, and while as variable names.
A special symbol that represents a simple computation like addition, multiplication, or string concatenation.
One of the values on which an operator operates.
The operation that divides two numbers and chops off the fraction part.
To simplify an expression by performing the operations in order to yield a single value.
To join two operands end-to-end.
Information in a program that is meant for other programmers or anyone reading the source code and has no effect on the execution of the program.
A named sequence of statements that performs some useful operation. Functions may or may not take arguments and may or may not produce a result.
A statement that creates a new function, specifying its name, parameters, and the statements it executes.
A value created by a function definition. The name of the function is a variable that refers to a function object.
The first line of a function definition.
The sequence of statements inside a function definition.
A name used inside a function to refer to the value passed as an argument.
A statement that executes a function. It consists of the function name followed by an argument list.
A value provided to a function when the function is called. This value is assigned to the corresponding parameter in the function.
A variable defined inside a function. A local variable can only be used inside its function.
The result of a function. If a function call is used as an expression, the return value is the value of the expression.
A function that returns a value.
A function that doesn't return a value.
A file that contains a collection of related functions and other definitions.
A statement that reads a module file and creates a module object.
A value created by an import statement that provides access to the values defined in a module.
The syntax for calling a function in another module by specifying the module name followed by a dot (period) and the function name.
Using an expression as part of a larger expression, or a statement as part of a larger statement.
flow of execution
The order in which statements are executed during a program run.
A graphical representation of a stack of functions, their variables, and the values they refer to.
A box in a stack diagram that represents a function call. It contains the local variables and parameters of the function.
A list of the functions that are executing, printed when an exception occurs.
A member of a set. The TurtleWorld in this chapter is a member of the set of TurtleWorlds.
A part of a program that can execute repeatedly.
The process of transforming a sequence of statements into a function definition.
The process of replacing something unnecessarily specific like a number with something appropriately general like a variable or parameter.
An argument that includes the name of the parameter as a "key- word."
A description of how to use a function, including the name and descriptions of the arguments and return value.
The process of modifying a working program to improve function interfaces and other qualities of the code.
A process for writing programs.
A string that appears in a function definition to document the function's interface.
A requirement that should be satisfied by the caller before a function starts.
A requirement that should be satisfied by the function before it ends.
An operator, denoted with a percent sign (%), that works on integers and yields the remainder when one number is divided by another.
An expression whose value is either True or False.
One of the operators that compares its operands: ==, !=, >, <, >=, and <=.
One of the operators that combines boolean expressions: and, or, and not.
A statement that controls the flow of execution depending on some condition.
The boolean expression in a conditional statement that determines which branch is executed.
A statement that consists of a header and a body. The header ends with a colon (:). The body is indented relative to the header.
One of the alternative sequences of statements in a conditional statement.
A conditional statement with a series of alternative branches.
A conditional statement that appears in one of the branches of another conditional statement.
The process of calling the function that is currently executing.
A conditional branch in a recursive function that does not make a recursive call.
A recursion that doesn't have a base case, or never reaches it. Eventually, an infinite recursion causes a runtime error.
An assignment where the new value of the variable depends on the old.
An assignment that gives an initial value to a variable that will be updated.
An update that increases the value of a variable (often by one).
An update that decreases the value of a variable.
Repeated execution of a set of statements using either a recursive function call or a loop.
A loop in which the terminating condition is never satisfied.
An ordered set; that is, a set of values where each value is identified by an integer index.
One of the values in a sequence.
An integer value used to select an item in a sequence, such as a character in a string.
A part of a string specified by a range of indices.
A string with no characters and length 0, represented by two quotation marks.
The property of a sequence whose items cannot be assigned.
To iterate through the items in a sequence, performing a similar operation on each.
A pattern of traversal that stops when it finds what it is looking for.
A variable used to count something, usually initialized to zero and then incremented.
A function that is associated with an object and called using dot notation.
A statement that calls a method.
A value that represents an open file.
A way of solving a problem by expressing it as an instance of a previously-solved problem.
A test case that is atypical or non-obvious and less likely to be handled correctly.
A sequence of values.
One of the values in a list or other sequence, also called items.
A list that is an element of another list.
The sequential accessing of each element in a list.
A relationship in which each element of one set corresponds to an element of another set. For example, a list is a mapping from indices to elements.
A variable used in a loop to add up or accumulate a result.
A statement that updates the value of a variable using an operator like +=.
A processing pattern that traverses a sequence and accumulates the elements into a single result.
A processing pattern that traverses a sequence and performs an operation on each element.
A processing pattern that traverses a list and selects the elements that satisfy some criterion.
Something a variable can refer to. An object has a type and a value.
Having the same value.
Being the same object which implies equivalence.
The association between a variable and its value.
A circumstance where two or more variables refer to the same object.
A character or string used to indicate where a string should be split.
A mapping from a set of keys to their corresponding values.
The representation of the mapping from a key to a value.
An object that appears in a dictionary as the first part of a key-value pair.
A way of performing a computation.
The algorithm used to implement Python dictionaries.
A function used by a hashtable to compute the location for a key.
A dictionary operation that takes a key and finds the corresponding value.
A dictionary operation that takes a value and finds one or more keys that map to it.
A list or other sequence with a single element.
A diagram that shows every frame created during the execution of a program, with an arrow from each caller to each callee.
A set of counters.
A computed value stored to avoid unnecessary future computation.
A variable defined outside a function. Global variables can be accessed from any function.
A boolean variable used to indicate whether a condition is true.
A statement like global that tells the interpreter something about a variable.
An immutable sequence of elements.
An assignment with a sequence on the right side and a tuple of variables on the left. The right side is evaluated and then its elements are assigned to the variables on the left
The operation of assembling a variable-length argument tuple.
The operation of treating a sequence as a list of arguments.
Abbreviation of "decorate-sort-undecorate," a pattern that involves building a list of tuples, sorting, and extracting part of the result.
A collection of related values, often organized in lists, dictionaries, tuples, etc.
of a data structure: A summary of the type, size and composition of a data structure.
Examine your code, read it back to yourself, and check that it says what you meant to say.
Pertaining to a program that does the same thing each time it runs, given the same inputs.
Pertaining to a sequence of numbers that appear to be random, but are generated by a deterministic program.
The value given to an optional parameter if no argument is provided.
To replace a default value with an argument.
The process of choosing between data structures by implementing alternatives and testing them on a sample of the possible inputs.
Pertaining to a program that runs indefinitely and keeps at least some of its data in permanent storage.
An operator, %, that takes a format string and a tuple and generates a string that includes the elements of the tuple formatted as specified by the format string.
A string, used with the format operator, that contains format sequences.
A sequence of characters in a format string, like %d, that specifies how a value should be formatted.
A sequence of characters stored in permanent storage like a hard drive.
A named collection of files, also called a folder.
A string that identifies a file.
A path that starts from the current directory.
A path that starts from the topmost directory in the file system.
To prevent an exception from terminating a program using the try and except statements.
A file whose contents are organized like a dictionary with keys that correspond to values.
A user-defined type. A class definition creates a new class object.
An object that contains information about a user-defined type. The class object can be used to create instances of the type.
One of the named values associated with an object.
An object that is stored as an attribute of another object.
To copy the contents of an object, including any references to embedded objects; implemented by the copy function in the copy module.
To copy the contents of an object as well as any embedded objects, and any objects embedded in them, and so on; implemented by the deepcopy function in the copy module.
A diagram that shows objects, their attributes, and the values of the attributes.
prototype and patch
A development plan that involves writing a rough draft of a program, testing, and correcting errors as they are found.
A development plan that involves high-level insight into the problem and more planning than incremental development or prototype development.
A function that changes one or more of the objects it receives as arguments.Most modifiers are fruitless.
A function that changes one or more of the objects it receives as arguments.Most modifiers are fruitless.
functional programming style
A style of program design in which the majority of functions are pure.
A condition that should always be true during the execution of a program.
To represent one set of values using another set of values by constructing a mapping between them.
An attribute associated with a class object. Class attributes are defined inside a class definition but outside any method.
An attribute associated with an instance of a class.
A method or function that provides a different interface to another function without doing much computation.
The ability to define a new class that is a modified version of a previously defined class.
The class from which a child class inherits.
A new class created by inheriting from an existing class; also called a "sub- class."
The relationship between a child class and its parent class.
The relationship between two classes where instances of one class contain references to instances of the other.
A diagram that shows the classes in a program and the relationships between them.
A notation in a class diagram that shows, for a HAS-A relationship, how many references there are to instances of another class.
A graphical user interface.
One of the elements that makes up a GUI, including buttons, menus, text entry fields, etc.
A value that controls the appearance or function of a widget.
A function associated with a widget that is called when the user performs an action.
A method associated with a particular instance.
A style of programming in which the flow of execution is
determined by user actions.
A user action, like a mouse click or key press, that causes a GUI to respond.
An infinite loop that waits for user actions and responds.
A rectangle that encloses a set of items, usually specified by two opposing corners.
To arrange and display the elements of a GUI.
A system for packing widgets.
An association between a widget, an event, and an event handler. The event handler is called when the event occurs in the widget.
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