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66 terms

Biology 621A - Chapter 15

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menstruation
monthly shedding of the lining of the uterus when fertilization does not occur
follicle stage
the stage of the menstrual cycle where the pituitary gland produces FSH which starts the maturation of an egg
corpus luteum
name given to the follicle after ovulation, secretes progesterone
luteinizing hormone
secreted by pituitary; regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in the female and testosterone production in the male
estrogen
Hormone produced by the ovaries which controls the development of eggs and adult female characteristics.
progesterone
hormone produced by the corpus luteum which promotes uterine lining growth
follicle stimulating hormone
secreted by the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate development of reproductive cell follicles
ovulation
The process by which a mature egg is released from the ovaries into the fallopian tubes.
zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an egg and sperm
embryo
a developing human, from fertilization through the first 8 weeks of development
fetus
the developing organism from the end of the eighth week until birth
morula
the solid mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of a blastula.
blastula
hollow ball of cells formed during the early stages of embryological development; also known as a blastocyst
gastrula
the embryo in the stage of development after the blastula; contains the embryonic germ layers
endoderm
innermost germ layer- forms the digestive tract
ectoderm
outermost germ layer; becomes skin and nervous system
mesoderm
germ layer between ectoderm and endoderm
cleavage
rapid mitotic division of a zygote that occurs immediately after fertilization
differentiation
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function.
blastocoel
the fluid-filled cavity inside a blastula
blastopore
opening formed when the blastula folds in on itself
primitive gut
cavity within the gastrula
neural tube
The primitive spinal cord that develops from the ectoderm, the top of which swells to form the brain.
embryonic induction
ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another group
chorion
The outermost of four extraembryonic membranes; contributes to the formation of the mammalian placenta.
amnion
The innermost of four extraembryonic membranes; encloses a fluid-filled sac in which the embryo is suspended.
allantois
One of four extraembryonic membranes; collects embryo's nitrogenous waste.
yolk sac
The membrane that is attached to a vertebrate embryo and that encloses the yolk;stores energy reserves for the developing embryo.
placenta
organ in placental mammals through which nutrients,oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exhanged beteen embryo and mother
umbilical cord
In placental mammals, the structure that connects the fetus and the placenta.
teratogens
Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformations or defects in a embryo of fetus
Puberty
the stage in life during which reproductive hormones begin to be formed. Reproductive development occurs during this stage
Seminiferous tubules
long, coiled tubes inside the testes
interstitial cells
cells surrounding the seminiferous tubules in the testes
sertoli cells
cells in the seminiferous tubules that support, regulate, and nourish developing sperm
epididymis
in human males, the tube within the scrotum in which sperm mature and become motile
seminal vesicle
glands that produce a mucus-like fluid containing fructose as energy for sperm
prostate gland
Exocrine gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder. It secretes alkaline fluid (part of semen) into the urethra during ejaculation to neutralize the acidity of the female reproductive tract.
cowper's gland
gland in human males that secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acidity of the female reproductive tract during ejaculation
semen
fluid made of sperm and fluid from the prostrate and Cowper's glands
inhibin
hormone that acts on the hypothalamus to stimulate the production of releasing factors that trigger release of FSH. The interaction of FSH and inhibin controls the rate of formation of sperm.
testosterone
steroid hormone produced in the testicles that is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics
endometrium
the mucous membrane that lines the uterus and increases in thickness in the latter part of menstrual cycle
ovaries
two glands that are suspended in the abdominal cavity and produce eggs (ova)
oviducts
pair of tubes in the body that transport an egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus
fimbriae
finger-like projections that sweep eggs from where they exit the ovaries into the fallopian tubes
menstrual cycle
in a human female, period of 25 - 40 days during which hormones stimulate the development of the uterine lining, and an egg is developed and released from an ovary. If the egg is not fertilized, the uterine lining is shed as the cycle begins again.
follicles
in the female reproductive system, groups of cells held in the ovaries. Each one of these cells contains an ovum (egg) that will develop
luteal stage
stage of the menstrual cycle that begins with ovulation. During this stage, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone, which inhibits the growth of other follicles so that only one ovum is released during each cycle.
menopause
period in woman's life during which a decrease in estrogen and progesterone results in an end of menstrual cycle
hormone replacement therapy
administration of low levels of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate symptoms of menopause
STI
diseases such as AIDS, chlamydia, or genital herpes that is normally passed from one person to another through sexual activity
sterile
physically incapable of conceiving offspring
infertile
incapable of becoming pregnant or of inducing pregnancy
contraception
a way of avoiding pregnancy, using either artificial methods such as condoms and birth control pills or natural methods such as avoiding sexual intercourse during a woman's none fertile periods
fertilization
first stage in embryonic development, when a sperm and egg interact successfully to form a zygote
blastocyst
stage which follows the morula
trophoblast
thin outer layer (ectoderm) that encloses the embryo of mammals, attaches the fertilized ovum to the wall of the uterus, and absorbs nutrients
implantation
the embryo's attachment of itself to the endometrium, occurs within the first week after fertilization in humans
primary membranes
thin flexible sheets of tissue that are not part of the embryo but that support, nourish and protect it
germ layers
three cellular layers in the gastrula - ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm
neurula
vertebrate embryo in the stage during which the nervous system begins to develop
differentiation
the process in which each of the three layers of the gastrula develop into different parts of the body
prostaglandins
May cause the release of oxytocin. Prostaglandins together with oxytocin cause the uterus to contract, signaling the beginning of labour
labour
process of giving birth to a baby
lactation
the secretion and formation of breast milk by the mammary glands