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48 terms

Chapter 7 Biology Vocabulary and key points

Miller and Levine Biology Text Pearson
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CYTOPLASM
fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus
ORGANELLE
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
VACUOLE
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
LYSOSOME
cell organelle that breaks down larger molecules such as lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules that the cell can use
CYTOSKELETON
network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
CENTRIOLE
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
RIBOSOME
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
GOLGI APPARATUS
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
CHLOROPLAST
Chloroplasts capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
MITOCHONDRION
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
CELL WALL
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
LIPID BILAYER
flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE
property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others cannot; also called semipermeable membrane
CELL
basic unit of all forms of life
CELL THEORY
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells
CELL MEMBRANE
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
NUCLEUS
in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
EUKARYOTE
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
PROKARYOTE
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
DIFFUSION
process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels
AQUAPORIN
water channel protein in a cell
OSMOSIS
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
ISOTONIC
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
HYPERTONIC
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
HYPOTONIC
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
OSMOTIC PRESSURE
pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
HOMEOSTASIS
relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
TISSUE
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
ORGAN
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
ORGAN SYSTEM
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
RECEPTOR
on or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone
HOW DO INDIVIDUAL CELLS MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS?
To maintain homestasis, unicelluar organisms grow, respond to the environment, transform energy, and reproduce.
HOW DO THE CELLS OF MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISMS WORK TOGETHER TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS?
The cells of multicellular organisms become specialized for particular tasks and communicate with one another to maintain homeostais.
WHAT IS CELL THEORY?
The Cell theory state that (1) all living things are made up of cells, (2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and (3) new cells are produced from existing cells.
HOW DO MICROSCOPES WORK?
Most Microscopes use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons.
HOW ARE PROKARYTONIC AND EUKARYPTIC CELLS DIFFERENT?
Prokarytonic cells do not separate their genetic material within the nucleus. In eukaryptic cells the nucleus separates the genetic material from the rest of the cell.
WHAT IS PASSIVE TRANSPORT?
Passive transport (includes diffusion and osmosis) is the movement of materials across the cell membranes without cellular energy
WHAT IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT?
The movement of materials against a concentration difference is known as active transport. Active transport requires energy.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE CELL NUCLEUS?
The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and, with it, the coded instructions for making proteins and other molecules.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF VACUOLES?
Valcuoles store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF LYSOSOMES?
Lysomes break large molecules into smaller ones that can be used by the cell. They are also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE CYTOSKELETON?
The cytoskelteon helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement.
WHAT ORGANELLES HELP MAKE AND TRANSPORT PROTEINS?
Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Proteins made on the rough ER include those that will be released from the cell as well as many membrane proteins and proteins destined for specialized locations within the cell. The Golgi apparatus then modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials for storage in the cell or release outside the cell.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF CHLOROPLASTS?
Chloroplasts capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTION OF MITOCHRONDRIA?
Mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANE?
The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and suppprts the cell.