Debate Honors Midterm
Terms in this set (57)
Oral confrontation between 2 individuals, teams, or groups to argue reasons for and against a set position. These arguments follow a set or procedure.
Explains that your actions are promoted by selfish desire and self-interest.
Example- store owner has a code of honesty to promote more business
The search for, and justification of, moral standards, or norms that tell you what is right and wrong.
3 theories: consequentialist, duty, and virtues
Argues that morals involve your emotions, not your power to reason; reasons do not constitute moral assessment.
You can list reasons but to have a moral argument you must express personal emotion.
Divine Command Theory
a theory asserting that an all powerful supreme being or God wills things and then they become a reality
asks about the status of morality and ethic principles in order to try to define goodness.
Questions what ethical principles mean and where do you get them from (eternal truth or human creation)
the investigation of truths and principles of reality, knowledge or value based on human reason alone.
An example offered to support an argument that is practical or real-life to help you in debate because almost everyone can relate or understand it.
deals with controversial moral problems such as abortion, premarital sex, capital punishment, euthanasia, and civil disobedience
theory based on the statement that morality is based on basic duties or obligations and other's rights.
Ex: Adopting a dog= duty to care and feed it
The idea humans invented moral values and standards based on time and place.
A theory in which the rightness/morality of actions depends solely on their consequences or results
Favorable vs. Unfavorable consequences
Ethical egoism, altruism, and utilitarianism
Categorical imperative theory
Type of duty theory-Moral requirements are based on a standard of rational .
Act as you would want all other people to act towards all other people as form of rationality.
Favorable consequences outweigh the unfavorable consequences for everyone
Ex: Speed limit is for the safety of everyone
Favorable consequences outweigh the unfavorable to everyone except the person performing the action.
Example: soldier sacrificing their life for their unit
In philosophy, answers are..
Better or worse, not right or wrong
3 main types of papers used in debate
Fact, value, policy
A statement that proves various positions with factual evidence
Show one thing better than the other, not right or wrong
Suggest a change of current situation or that an action should be taken based on advantages and disadvantages
statements that can be formed from sound thinking and proof of reasoning.
Explanation or justification
A type of logic in which generalizations or conclusions are based on a large number of specific observations and facts.
Ex: The weather this summer has been warm.
Strawberries grow well in warm weather. This summer will be very good for strawberry picking.
Begin with general statement that is accepted as truth. From that, it makes a conclusion about something specific.
Ex: Every student in debate will argue both sides.
Bella is in debate class.
Therefore, Bella will argue both sides.
the process of reasoning and rational thinking
Statement that sets up the argument
Statement of fact to give reason and evidence for believing the conclusion.
Statement concluded from the premises
Final position agreed upon at the end of the argument
False statement, idea or an argument that is based on unclear or erroneous reasoning
"Either or" premise with no options between extremes. Black and white, no grey area
"Against the man"
a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
appeal to tradition
a fallacy that something should continue because it has traditionally existed or been done that way
Confusing Cause and Effect
A fallacy that incorrectly assumes that one event must cause another just because two events often occur together
Appeal to Authority
A fallacy in which there speaker appeals to the respect people have for a person by questioning their qualifications or authority
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
Poisoning the Well
Presenting negative information about a person before he/she speaks so as to discredit the person's argument.
A fallacy that incorrectly assumes that one event will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented even though there is no connection.
A fallacy where one uses extremely weak or irrelevant reasons to draw a conclusion
post hoc ergo propter hoc
from the Latin for "after this, because of this;" assumes that because one event happened after another, then the preceding event caused the event that followed
begging the question
When the conclusion of the argument is presented as the premise
when a speaker presumes certain things are facts when they have not yet been proven to be truthful.
Founding Fathers of Virtue
Aristotle and Plato
Virtues fall inside a range of two vices.
Ex: Courage- too little is cowardice and two much is rashness
Emphasized wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice
Saying each syllable correctly and speaking well
takes place between two affirmative speakers and two negative speakers who argue a proposition of policy (pragmatic, real world, causes and effects)
-scheduled and in a specific setting
-participants prepare extensively and the topic established
Ex: Presidential Debates
common occurrence with very little preparation or rules
Ex: arguing where you should go out to eat
A value debate that takes place between 2 people
Affirmative vs. negative of a topic of value
2 types of speeches- constructive and rebuttal + cross examination period
Public Forum Debate
a team event that advocates or rejects a position posed by the monthly resolution topic or current event.
An informative oral presentation of the debate's key points
The second speech given by a debater , which responds to the opponents arguments. It is persuasive and points out the areas of strengths in your speech and areas of weakness in your opponents.
Response to the counterargument or counterclaim
Statement on the topic that will be debated
Mock congress where students write, present, and debate legislative bills and resolutions. Take part in larger tournaments of debate,
The perception of sound involuntarily through your ears.
paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear when one is speaking.
Taking notes, measuring the value and quality of the words being said by your opponent
Being confident and ready in your attitude and behavior
Saying words correctly
Justify the means
Desired result is so good that the methods used to achieve it can be morally good or bad.
Ends justify the means.
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