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67 terms

Meteorology Today Chapter 2

Questions from the Workbook and Study Guide Meterorology Today, 8th edition
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Heat transfer process that depends upon the movement of air.
convection
Objects that selectively absorb and emit radiation
selective absorber
Rising bubbles of air
thermals
The heat we can feel and measure with a thermometer
sensible heat
The horizontal transfer of any atmospheric property by the wind
advection
Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves
radiation
One millionth of a meter
micrometer
A measure of the average speed of air molecules
temperature
The horizontal distance between two wave crests
wavelength
This is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds
latent heat
The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact
conduction
The sun emits radiation with greatest intensity in this region of the spectrum
visible
A temperature scale where O degrees represents freezing and 100 boiling
Celsius
Wavelengths longer than those of red light
infrared
Visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere
aurora
Electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are shorter than those of visible light
ultraviolet
Temperature scale that begins at absolute zero
Kelvin
Charged particles traveling through space
solar wind
Energy of motion is also known as______.
kinetic energy
Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be_____
reflective
A perfect absorber and a perfect emitter of radiation is called_____ ______
black body
How much radiation would an object be emitting if its temperature were at absolute zero?
none
The _____ represents the reflectivity of a surface.
albedo
The two most significant atmospheric greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere are _____ and______.
water vapor and carbon dioxide
At night objects on the ground cool by the process of emitting_____.
infrared radiation
The combined albedo of the earth and its atmosphere average about_____ percent.
30
The earth emits maximum radiation in the _____ portion of the spectrum, while the sun emits maximum radiation at _____ wavelengths.
infrared, visible
If the present concentration of CO2 doubles, climatic models predict that for the earth's average temperature to rise by as much as 4.5 degrees, the gas_____ _____ must also increase in concentration.
water vaper
The wavelength range where neither water vapor nor carbon dioxide absorbs much of the earth's infrared radiation is known as the atmospheric_____.
window
Air that sinks, warms by_____
compression
The temperature at which the earth is both absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates is called the Earth's _____ _____ _____
radiative equilibrium temperature
In the Northern Hemisphere another name for the northern lights is the_____.
aurora borealis
Sunlight deflected in all directions after striking very small objects is said to be_____.
scattered
The sky is blue due to the ____ of the shorter wavelengths of visible light.
scattering
As the average speed of air molecules decreases, the temperature of the air:
decreases
The proper order of waves from longest to shortest is:
infrared, visible, ultraviolet
Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:
hot objects to cold objects
The rate at which radiant energy is emitted by a body:
increases with increasing temperature
If the earth had no atmosphereic greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:
lower than at present
If the earth's average surface temperature should increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface will_____, and the wavelength of maximum emission will shift toward_____ wavelengths
increase, shorter
the moon's surface can only cool by (hint: the moon has no atmosphere):
radiation
The earth's atmospheric green house effect is produced mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide absorbing and emitting:
infrared radiation
The albedo or the moon is 7 percent. This means that:
7 percent of the sunlight that strikes the moon is reflected
Clear, calm night are usually cooler than cloudy, calm nights because:
clouds absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation back to the earth's surface
Which of the gases below is not believed responsible for enhancing the earth's atmospheric greenhouse effect?
molecular nitrogen (N2)
The law that states that good absorbers of radiation are good emitters of radiation at a particular wavelength:
Kirchoff's law
Annually, polar regions lose more heat energy than they receive, yet they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year mainly by the:
conduction of heat through the interior of the earth
If the average surface temperature of the earth should increase, the amount of raiant energy emitted from the surface would:
increase
The sun's radiation is also referred to a shortwave radiation
True
Clouds are poor absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation
False
Only selective absorbers in the atmosphere emit radiation.
False
A degree Fahrenheit is larger than a degree Celsius.
True
On the average, about 50% of the solar radiation that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface.
True
An utraviolet photon carries more energy than an infrared photon
True
Air is a poor conductor of heat
True
The earth's atmosphere behaves as a black body.
False
On the average, each year the earth-atmosphere system sends off into space just as much energy as it receives.
True
Sinking air always warms and rising air always cools.
True
On the average, 75 percent of the sunlight that strikes water daily is reflected.
False
Energy is the ability or capacity to do work.
True
An increase in cloud cover around the earth would probably increase the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system.
True
Air glow is another name for the aurora.
False
The process of condensation, freezing, and deposition all release sensible heat in the environment.
True
An air temperature of 0 degrees K would be the same as an air temperature of 0 degrees C.
False
In direct sunlight, an object with a high albedo appears darker than an object with a low albedo.
False
The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is lower than the earth's observed average surface temperature.
True
UVB radiation is more likely to cause a sunburn than is UVA radiation.
True