aka: suspensory ligaments
fibrous bands extending vertically from the
surface to attach on chest wall muscles
Four groups of axillary nodes in breast:
Central axillary nodes, pectoral (anterior) nodes,
subscapular (posterior) nodes & lateral nodes.
Tanners maturity rating scale:
Preadolescent-small elevated nipple
Breastbud stag-small mound breast/nipple; areola widens breast//areola enlarge-nipple flush w/surface
Areola & Nipple form secondary mound over breast
Mature Breast--Only nipple protrudes; areola flush w/breast
Thick, yellow fluid that is a precursor for milk, that contains same amount of protein & lactose, but no fat.
Ovarian secretion of estrogen & progesterone decreases causing breast glandular tissue to atrophy.
A malignant condition that outwardly may have the appearance of eczema, with skin changes involving the nipple of the breast.
Between days 4-7:
Time when breasts are at smallest density due to decreased levels of estrogen & progesterone.
Mammary Duct ectasia:
A condition in which there is dilation of the lactiferous duct, caused by stagnation of cellular debris. Occurs in women who have lactated. Signs of duct ectasia can include nipple retraction, inversion, pain, and sometimes a bloody discharge.
A small, noncancerous (benign) tumor that grows in a milk duct of the breast; may have serous or serosanguineous discharge.
Inflammatory mass before abscess formation usually occuring in one quadrant; area is red, swollen, tender, hard and very hot. Most common in women who are lactating.
a part of the vertebrae projecting backward from the arches, giving attachment to the back muscles
Middle section of thoracic cavity containing the esophagus, trachea, heart and great vessels.
The thin space between the two pleural layers; it normally contains a small amount of pleural fluid.
The outer pleura that is attached to the chest wall and is highly sensitive to pain.
Parenchyma of lung:
Although often used to refer solely to alveolar tissue, term describes any form of lung tissue including bronchioles, bronchi, blood vessels, interstitium, and alveoli.
A functional respiratory unit that consists of the bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli.
4 major functions of respiration:
1. Oxygen to body for energy production
2. Removing CO2 as waste product of energy reactions
3. Maintaining acid-base balance of arterial blood
4. Maintaining heat exchange
Contraction of the bell-shaped diaphragm causes an increase in size of the thoracic container.
A few hours after birth:
the ductus arteriosus (linking the pulmonary artery and the aorta) contracts and closes.
Respiratory Changes in older adults:
Costal cartilage becomes calcified; respiratory muscles strength declines; lung is more rigid and harder to inflate.
The maximum amount of air that a person can expel from the lungs after first filling the lungs to maximum.
The expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e.g. in tuberculosis or other respiratory infections or cardiovascular pathologies).
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea:
Sudden, severe shortness of breath at night that awakens a person from sleep, often with coughing and wheezing. It is most closely associated with congestive heart failure
Childhood respiratory infections:
4 to 6 uncomplicated upper respiratory infections per year is expected in early childhood.
Unequal chest expansion:
Occurs with marked atelectasis or pneumonia, fractured ribs or pneumothorax.
Defined as the lack of gas exchange within alveoli, due to alveolar collapse or fluid consolidation. It may affect part or all of one lung.
Occurs when anything obstructs transmission of vibrations, such as obstructed bronchi, Pleural thickening, pneumothorax or emphysema.
Lower-pitched, booming sound found when to much air is present, as in emphysema or pneumothorax.
Reasons for decreased/absent breath sounds:
Bronchial tree obstructed-secretions, mucus plug, foreign body
Emphysema-Loss elasticity in lung fibers; decreased force of inspired air-lungs already hyperinflated, so inhaled air doesn't make much noise.
Reasons for increased breath sounds:
Louder than they should be, w/high pitched tubular w/prolonged expiratory phase & distinct pause bet in & ex
Occur when consolidation (pneumonia) or compression (fluid in intrapleural space) yields dense lung area enhancing sounds
Short, popping, crackling sounds that do not last beyond a few breaths; not pathologic.
Forced expiratory time:
Number of seconds it takes for a person to exhale from total lung capacity to residual volume; measures air flow obstruction.
Apgar scoring system:
0-2 indicates severely depressed newborn-full resuscitation
3-6 indicates moderately depressed newborn
7-10 indicates newborn in good condition
Rapid, shallow breathing w/a rate of >22 BPM; normal response to fever, fear, or exercise.
Blows off too much CO2, causing need to breath again; increase in both rate and depth and occurs w/extreme exertion, fear or anxiety.
Usually occurs near death; Long periods of apnea; cycle of wax and wane.
Chronic obstructive breathing:
Normal inspirations-prolonged expirations (empysema); feels like they are suffocating.
Pleural friction rub:
Inflammation of pleural membrane; course grating sound when rubbed together during breathing.
Inflammation of the bronchi w/partial obstruction of bronchi by secretions or constrictions; acute or chronic.
Infection in lung parenchyma; alveoli become consolidated w/bacteria resulting in decreased surface area of respiratory membrane, causing hypoxemia.
Collapsed shrunken section of alveoli or entire lung as a result of airway obstruction, compression of lung or lack of surfactant.
Allergic hypersensitivity that produces responses of bronchospasm, inflammation, and highly viscous mucus into airways. Increases airway resistance.
Destruction of pulmonary connective tissue; permanent enlargement of air sacs; increased airway resistance, especially on expiration-produces hyperinflated lung.
Pump failure causing pulmonary congestion or increased blood in pulmonary capillaries; dependent air saces are deflated; pulmonary capillaries engorged.
Free air in pleural space, neutralizes negative pressure, causing partial or complete lung collapse; no symetrical expansion.
Undissolved material originating in legs or pelvis detach and travel through venous system and lodge in pulmonary vessels.