Module #7

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Genetics
The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.
Genetic factors
The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA.
environmental factors
Those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices.
Spiritual factors
The factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.
Gene
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of a protein, thereby causing a trait.
Messenger RNA
The RNA that performs transcription.
Anticodon
A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA
Codon
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.
Chromosomes
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.
Mitosis
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells
Interphase
The time interval between cellular reproduction.
Mother cell
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.
Centromere
The region that joins two sister chromatids.
Karyotype
The figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
diploid cell
A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.
haploid cell
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Diploid number 2
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Haploid number 2n
The number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.
Meiosis
The process by which a diploid (2n) forms gametes (n)
Gametes
Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction
Virus
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.
Antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
vaccine
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen
Proteins
The tasks that a cell can complete are dependent on the _________________ that is produces.
Uracil
It performs the same tasks in RNA that thymine does in DNA.
Transcription
Part one of protein synthesis
Translation
Part two of protein synthesis
Translation
When all the amino acids called for by the codons on mRNA are linked together, the result is a protein.
Transcription
The process of When the mRNA makes its negative image in order to copy the nucleotide sequence in DNA
Translation
The process where the mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome, where the tRNA strands carry amino acids to the mRNA and line them up in the order determined by the sequence of nucleotides.
Histones
They wind up small stretches of DNA.
Nucleosomes
DNA wrapped around histones form beads on a string called._____________
Chromosomes
Proteins stabilize and support histones, making a complex network of DNA coils and proteins. This network is called a __________
condensed chromosome
When the cell is ready to reproduce, it makes a compact version of a chromosome, called a __________
cell cycle
The combination of interphase and mitosis is called the
sister chromatids
What the cells are called after duplication.
Prophase
When the duplicated chromosomes coil into their condensed form, and attach to each other at a point called the centromere.
aster
During prophase, each set of centrioles migrate towards one end of the cell. Microtubules extend from the centrioles in all directions forming the_______
spindle fibers
As the centrioles migrate, microtubules from the aster grow forming ——-/-
mitotic spindle
Spindle fibers make up the ________________
Equatorial plane
The imaginary line which runs down the center of the cell, equidistant from the two centrioles.
Metaphase
The brief time in which the chromosomes are lined up along the equilateral plane.
Anaphase
The phase When the sister chromatids get separated from each other.
Telophase
The phase when the spindle begins to disintegrate and the plasma membrane begins to constrict along the equatorial plane, eventually forming two cells where there was only one.
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
The four stages of animal cell mitosis.
Homologous chromosome pairs
Pairs of chromosomes that are similar but not identical
X chromosomes
The sex chromosomes in a women's cell are called__________
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome that is carried by men
Diploid
When a cells chromosomes come in pairs.
Haploid
Chromosomes that do not come in pairs.
Gametes
In meiosis, when diploid cells get split into haploid cells, they are called __________.
Egg cell
The gamete produced by the mother.
sperm cell
The gamete produced by the father.
Zygote
When gametes join together, the resulting diploid cell is called a ______.