Module #7


Terms in this set (...)

The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.
Genetic factors
The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA.
environmental factors
Those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices.
Spiritual factors
The factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of a protein, thereby causing a trait.
Messenger RNA
The RNA that performs transcription.
A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells
The time interval between cellular reproduction.
Mother cell
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.
The region that joins two sister chromatids.
The figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
diploid cell
A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.
haploid cell
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Diploid number 2
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Haploid number 2n
The number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.
The process by which a diploid (2n) forms gametes (n)
Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen
The tasks that a cell can complete are dependent on the _________________ that is produces.
It performs the same tasks in RNA that thymine does in DNA.
Part one of protein synthesis
Part two of protein synthesis
When all the amino acids called for by the codons on mRNA are linked together, the result is a protein.
The process of When the mRNA makes its negative image in order to copy the nucleotide sequence in DNA
The process where the mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome, where the tRNA strands carry amino acids to the mRNA and line them up in the order determined by the sequence of nucleotides.
They wind up small stretches of DNA.
DNA wrapped around histones form beads on a string called._____________
Proteins stabilize and support histones, making a complex network of DNA coils and proteins. This network is called a __________
condensed chromosome
When the cell is ready to reproduce, it makes a compact version of a chromosome, called a __________
cell cycle
The combination of interphase and mitosis is called the
sister chromatids
What the cells are called after duplication.
When the duplicated chromosomes coil into their condensed form, and attach to each other at a point called the centromere.
During prophase, each set of centrioles migrate towards one end of the cell. Microtubules extend from the centrioles in all directions forming the_______
spindle fibers
As the centrioles migrate, microtubules from the aster grow forming ——-/-
mitotic spindle
Spindle fibers make up the ________________
Equatorial plane
The imaginary line which runs down the center of the cell, equidistant from the two centrioles.
The brief time in which the chromosomes are lined up along the equilateral plane.
The phase When the sister chromatids get separated from each other.
The phase when the spindle begins to disintegrate and the plasma membrane begins to constrict along the equatorial plane, eventually forming two cells where there was only one.
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
The four stages of animal cell mitosis.
Homologous chromosome pairs
Pairs of chromosomes that are similar but not identical
X chromosomes
The sex chromosomes in a women's cell are called__________
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome that is carried by men
When a cells chromosomes come in pairs.
Chromosomes that do not come in pairs.
In meiosis, when diploid cells get split into haploid cells, they are called __________.
Egg cell
The gamete produced by the mother.
sperm cell
The gamete produced by the father.
When gametes join together, the resulting diploid cell is called a ______.