K 381 Flashcards History of Sports
Terms in this set (64)
What draws humans to play sports?
Our physical (bodies), interllectual (mind) , and social (culture) characteristics
What 4 reasons are the reasons humans began to play games?
For Hunting, warfare, to honor the Gods (Greeks), and because it's FUN
Basic Characteristics of pre-modern sports (Define): Sacred
fundamentally rooted in religion (HOLY)
Basic Characteristics of pre-modern sports (Define): Martial
aggressive, war-like, combative, training for warfare
Basic Characteristics of pre-modern sports (Define): Local
Two Meanings: in a geographic sense, relative to particular region / second meaning: ancient people played games in accordance to rules and regulations that they believed were handed down to them by their Gods. In the modern world obviously rules are man made.
Basic Characteristics of pre-modern sports (Define): Durable
pre modern sports were incredibly long lasting (ancient olympics went THOUSANDS of years without interruption) in comparison to modern sports = very young in comparison (example: basketball is only about 100 years old)
Basic Characteristics of pre-modern sports (Define): unequal
Pre-modern sports were grossly inequal. They discriminated against people of other gender, race, type of people. You had to be a greek male free born and couldn't be a slave or have a criminal record
Characteristics of MODERN sports: Secularism
we don't play for Gods no mo'
Characteristics of MODERN sports: Equality
women and even criminals are allowed to play (we now strive for a leveling playing field, fair games)
Characteristics of MODERN sports: Specialization of roles
positions for athletes, RB, WR, PG, SG
Characteristics of MODERN sports: Rationalization
organization and understanding of sports, ancient people had very limited rules
Characteristics of MODERN sports: Bureaucratic Organization
a governed body of sports (NCAA, NBA, NFL) their responsibilities are rationalization
Characteristics of MODERN sports: Quantification
measured, establishing a value, (stats, score, or in a scientific approach: trying to improve a golf swing)
Characteristics of MODERN sports: Quest for Records
self-explanatory, but created because of quantification
Why do we have limited understanding of sports in 5000 BC?
Because Man and Woman learned how to write in 5000 BC
What are the sources of evidence for Ancient Sport?
Written proof, and primary and secondary sources (you were there and you heard about it respectively), and also archeological evidence (Like rocks and shit) and Epigraphical (writings and carvings into stone or wood)
Who was the guy who inspired the marathon?
Pheiddippides ran to athens to announce a Greek victory then died
"No man better at archery, and none equal to him in running, then outrowed all of his men for 3 miles without a pause" the story of the explanation as to why Pharoah Kings were supposed to be superior athletes
story of Amenophis II
What did the Irish use sports for?
same as the egyptians: survival and for the Gods
Premodern sports were sacred in aspects to honor the lives of fallen ________. Competition was seen as an act of __________.
Greeks: what was the first documentation of evidence for Greek Sports?
Homer's Illiad and Odyssey
Patroklus and Achielles were known as
In the Funeral Games of Patroklos, what types of prizes did the athletes compete for?
women, faultless in their work; 6 year old unbroken, pregnant mane; a cauldron holding measures (money) (olive oil)
What events comprised the Funeral Games of Patroklos?
A chariot race, boxing, wrestling, running, spear throwing, hand to hand combat, archery
What groups of people competed in these events? patrclus
warriors; military men; sons of kings
What is the connection between sport and religion in these passages (games of patroklus)? How do the Gods supposedly influence the sporting events?
in religious aspects the games were held in commemoration of Patroklus; The Gods help in example: when dude was helped by Athena through prayer to win. In the chariot race prayer happened as well to get his reigns back
In Homer's Odyssey, what events comprise the athletic events of the Phaeacians?
boxing; wrestling; discus throw; and racing long jump (these events correlate to when Odysseus was washed along the phaecian shore and no one knew it was him. they he proved them bishes wrong when he dominated all of them in sports)
How long did Odysseus's wife wait for him to come home? What did she do in order to finally accept her next suitor?
20 years; she allowed any man to attempt to fire odysseus's bow, firing a skilled shot that only Odysseus was capable of doing, Odysseus came home looking different and fired the shot to prove it was him and they were finally back together.
Homer's athletes were:
Homer's Athletic contests demonstrated:
prowess, directly related to military skills
Give an example of how Premodern games to Greeks were sacred:
The games for patroklus in honor of of his death.
greek root of agony - sport as a life or death affair (winner takes it all home, loser becomes this worthless piece of shit)
greek term for excellence =
greek word for PRIZE
greek word for THE CONTEST
uhhh the competitor of course
The average man went to extreme levels to acheive _________. The average exepancy for men at that time was around______. (according to prof)
Another name for the greek games are the _________ games, the word derives from the word "crown"
________ games is another word for the greek games derived from money or "sponsorships"
4 origins to the olympic games:
1) zeus defeats cronus
2) the shrine of demeter
3) the feats of heracles (hercules)
4) the feats of pelops
Chronological order of when certain games arrived in the olympics
diaulos (a double stade race)
dolichos (an eight stade to twenty four stade race-one to three miles)
wrestling and a pentathlon
1)stade race 2) javelin throw
3) long jump 4) discus throw
5) wrestling match
foot races and wrestling for boys
boxing for boys
a foot race in armor
a contest for heralds & trumpeters
8 athletic events for men, 4 athletic events for boys, 8 equestrian events
Typical Olympic Program:
Day 1: Oaths, sacrifices
contests for heralds and trumpeters
running and wrestling for boys
Day 2: Chariot races, pentathalon events: stade (running race), long jump, javelin, discus, and wrestling
Day 3: 100 ox sacrificed to zeus
running race (stade, diaulous, dolichos)
Day 4: Heavy events: boxing, fighting and sheeeit
Day 5: rituals, award ceremonies, banquets
leather strap used for javelin
targets for the javelins (also a turning post for the races)
sandtraps for jumpings
olympic judge (original name given)
olympic judge (aka name for judges after games grew)
who was given responsibility to judge the games?
ellians (natives of city state close to olympia)
City site of 1 month training camp for for preolympics
olympic messenger (alerted everyone of the upcoming olympics, athletes included)
sacred truce sworn to zeus for safe passage to olympia
flower parade, adourning of greek athletes, winners were crowned
the mother****in starting line ya BISH
sprint race (running towards the Gods)
the jumping weights
thing used to scrape off sweat and the coat that was put on these athletes and then sold
religious sanctuary at olympia (were animals were sacrificed)
who the only people allowed to sit at the olympics? (i'm assuming besides royalty)
5 significant facts about Olympic games in greek civilization
1) the durability of the games (thousands of years)
2) ethnocentricity - they only allowed greek participants who were male and born free
3) the exclusion of women (unequal)
4) olympian athletes were only aristoi (extremely gifted athletes)
5) problem of specialization (euripides and chrys)
Give an example of olympia based measurements for time and distance
a stade (reference for distance
an olympiad (4 years)
Despite the resistance to the games from scholars the games were still a __________ force.
Why was it important for the cities to have winning olympia athletes?
it brought a lot of prestige to their cities
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