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Arts and Humanities
AP Lang & Comp Mid-term
Terms in this set (93)
a story or poem that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.
the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause
A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way
the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses
Inversion of the natural or usual word order (ex. Yoda talk)
the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers
The substitution of one part of speech for another, often turning a noun into a verb
Repetition of words in reverse order (exact mirror)
A contrast or opposition between two things or ideas
A brief, cleverly worded statement that makes a wise observation about life.
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction (such as liberty or love).
a word or phrase placed next to another word in order to define or identify it
Repetition of vowel sounds
omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words
A statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed (doesn't have to be an exact mirror)
a word or phrase that is not formal or literary, typically one used in ordinary or familiar conversation (usually stem from a place or generation)
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
Repetition of consonant sounds
An independent clause followed by subordinate clauses or phrases that supply additional detail (clauses "build up").
the literal meaning of a word
the omission of a word or series of words (usually for some effect)
repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end ("bookends")
Repetition of the same word or group of words at the end of successive clauses
The Greek word for a rhetorical question (does not call for an answer and actually makes a statement)
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
A succession of phrases of identical length, structure, and rhythm.
placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast (usually to show differences between them)
the mistaken use of a word in place of a similar-sounding one (often with unintentionally amusing effect).
A comparison without using like or as
substituting the name of an attribute or feature for that of the thing meant (ex. 'lend me your ears').
A word that imitates the sound it represents (ex. snap crackle pop).
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase
a statement that seems contradictory but is actually true (or proven true upon investigation)
the repetition of words or phrases that have similar grammatical structures
a qualifying or explanatory sentence, clause or word that writers insert into a paragraph or passage
A descriptive/expansive word or phrase is used to refer to a proper name (ex. 'Banana = elongated yellow fruit').
places the main idea or central complete thought at the end of the sentence, after all introductory elements (repeating pattern)
the giving of human qualities to an animal, object, or idea
Deliberate use of many conjunctions
a humorous play on words
A question asked merely for effect with no answer expected
comparing two things using like or as
If A=C and B=C, then A must = B
A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent a whole (ex. car = wheels).
When one word is used in two ways in a sentence
Syntax; sentence structure
Diction; word choice
mildly corrective satire (playful)
harsh, biting satire, full of moral indignation and bitter contempt
Knaves & Fools
in comedy there are no villains or innocent victims--> instead there are rogues and suckers. When these two intenteract, comic satire results, and they expose each other when they meet.
a comic dramatic work using buffoonery and horseplay and typically including crude characterization and ludicrously improbable situations (ex. the three stooges)
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
a comic tool of satire, the writer uses ridiculous exaggeration of under-exaggeration (ex. "Chicago").
Presents a serious (often religious) subject frivolously, reducing it to its lowest level.
the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect
A figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant
when a reader is aware of something that a character isn't
feigning ignorance (often to expose the ignorance of someone else)
An outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected
a thing belonging to a period of time other than that in which it exists or is presented
linking together (with no commentary) items which normally do not go together
Elicits laughter and disgust; overly gross or bizarre
An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
harsh, cutting language or tone intended to ridicule
'fake praise' which is actually meant to imply blame
mental sharpness and inventiveness; keen intelligence demonstrated in writing
Circular Reasoning/Begging the Question
An argument in which the writer, instead of applying evidence, simply restates the point of the argument.
When a speaker chooses a deliberately poor argument and knocks it down
something that draws attention away from the main issue
a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real argument
An argument for a specific purpose or situation
A statement that does not follow logically from evidence
A fallacy in which a faulty conclusion is reached because of inadequate evidence.
Answering criticism with criticism to avoid the argument
Condemning an argument because of where it began, how it began, or who began it.
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
post hoc ergo propter hoc
improperly assuming that a sequence in time implies a cause and effect ('after this, therefore because of this').
Appeal to Authority
A fallacy in which a speaker or writer seeks to persuade by appealing to the respect people have for a famous person or institution saying something
arrogant, stubborn assertion of opinion or belief
attempt to scare the audience into agreeing with the speaker
Overly Sentimental Appeals
use tender emotions excessively to distract readers from facts
either/or (false dilemma)
A fallacy in which the speaker presents two extreme options as the only possible choices.
burden of proof
When an argument is proven correct on the basis that it hasn't been proven wrong
Stacking the Deck
giving only evidence that supports your argument while ignoring or disregarding contrary evidence
reductio ad absurdum
a disproof by showing that the consequences of the proposition are absurd
A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
Just Plain Folks
appearing to be like the average person for positive effect
Recommended textbook explanations
myPerspectives: English Language Arts, California (Grade 10, Volume 1)
Collections: Grade 11
myPerspectives: English Language Arts, California (Grade 9, Volume 1)
McDougal Littell Literature: American Literature
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