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World Religions Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (110)
A movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Jewish Day of Atonement- fasting and reflecting on one's sins (holiest day of the year for
Jewish place of worship
A Hebrew word meaning "law," referring to the first five books of the Old Testament.
A highly respected teacher of Jewish law or theology. Hebrew for "My Master/Teacher"
Hebrew for "The Anointed One"; Jesus' title
Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina. The start of the Islamic calendar
The ritual washing of the face, hands, arms, top of head, and feet that a Muslim must perform before salah, the second pillar of Islam.
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
In Islam, the "call to prayer."
first caliph after death of Muhammad
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam.
Festival of Breaking the Fast at the end of Ramadan
Charismatic Black Muslim leader who promoted separatism in the early 1960s
the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac. Founder of Judaism
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
a city in western Saudi Arabia; a city where Muhammad fled and established Islaml
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
Capital city of Iraq. As heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.- Capitol of the Abbasid Dynasty
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
The branch of Islam that believes in a more mystical connection with Allah.
Ali party; leaders are blood related to Muhammad; minority of Muslims
Islamic code of law
the "crier" who calls the Muslim faithful to prayer from the minaret of a mosque
In Muslim belief, Gods final revelation, supervening both the Jewish and Christian Bibles. The word means "recite" or "recitation"
Arabic for "God"; the supreme god of Islam
sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith
Seal of the Prophets
Name recognizing Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet.
A word meaning "story", the sayings and stories of Muhammad that are meant to form guidance for living out religion
comprises the religious, institutional, and cultural elements of the most populace branch of the Latte Day Saint movement. Traces origins to Joseph Smith
major break of group(s) from the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500s
Official teaching authority of the Church. Bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the Bishop of Rome (Pope)
The holy book of Christianity
In Hinduism, the individual soul or essence
Sanskrit for "illusions." A teaching of the Upanishads that says that only Brahman is permanent; everything else is only an illusion.
Based on the belief in reincarnation, the Hindu and Buddhist belief that the form the soul will take in the next life is determined by its behavior in this life.
"student of life", occurs between 8 and 20-25, dharma requires males to study the Vedas, exercise self discipline, and practice celibacy
In Hinduism, Ultimate Reality or Absolute Reality
Experience of birth, life and death over and over again until one has reached oneness with Brahman
Policy of non-violent resistance used by Gandhi as a means for pressing for political reform
Hindu devotional worship of deities at home or in a temple
Incarnation of a Hindu god, especially Vishnu in human or animal form
Becoming liberated for the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism.
Hindu discipline aimed at training for consciousness for a state of perfect spiritual onsite and tranquility
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult
rituals performed at the critical changes and passages of life. Total of 16 samskaras
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
Avatar of Vishnu
A canon of Hindu scripture, it is from a word that means "what is heard"
2nd category of scriptures "that which is remembered"
the path of action through selfless service
path of knowledge; learning, thinking, and viewing oneself in third person. Meditation is often used
path of devotion; Hindus usually do this
A yoga system of physical exercises and breathing control.
a Hindu spring festival celebrated in February or March in honor of the love between Krishna and Radha. "Festival of colors"
Festival of Lights. Northern part of India celebrates it in 5 days. South celebrates in one day
The goddess of learning, literature and music
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties
Siddhartha Gautama once he became the enlightened one or "awakened one"
4 Noble Truths
Core of Buddha's doctrine; all life involves suffering, desire is the cause of suffering, elimination of desire brings the end to suffering, and disciplined life conducted in accordance with the Eightfold Path brings elimination of desire
"To Extinguish" or "to blow out", refers to extinction of all suffering. Spiritual goal for all Buddhists
the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet.
Sanskrit word meaning devotion
The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.
a technique derived from Hinduism that promotes deep relaxation through recitation of a mantra
A sacred verbal formula that is repeated in prayer or meditation
The tree under which Sidartha Gautama achieved enlightenment.
Person who renounced material comforts to live a self disciplined life especially in the area of religious devotion
The name of the more mystical and larger of the two main Buddhist sects. This one originated in India in the 400s CE and gradually found its way north to the Silk road and into Central and East Asia.
Literally "diamond vehicle" it is the prominent branch of Buddhism in Tibet
A Mahayana Buddhist text where Enlightenment is made available not only to monastics, but to all because of the great compassion of bodhisattvas
A word to describe Hindu literature written in Sanskrit and concerned with rituals acts of body, speech, and mind.
Basic moral standard by which all Buddhists are to live
1. Do not take life
2. Do not take what is not given
3. Do not engage in sensuous misconduct
4. Do not use false speech
5. Do not drink intoxicants
a dome-shaped structure erected as a Buddhist shrine.
Buddhist temples that have multi-storied towers with an upward curving roof at each floor
The three "baskets," or collections, of Buddhist (Sanskrit) texts.
The Buddhist community of monks and nuns; one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism.
Buddha, Sangha, Dharma
Life is suffering
The second of the Four Noble Truths, selfish desire, which causes dukkha
a person who has attained enlightenment but who has postponed nirvana in order to help others achieve enlightenment
The founder of the religion Buddhism who believed that all life was suffering. Also known as the Buddha.
Blending of Hinduism and Islam
Kung Fu-tzu, Confucius was a Chinese philosopher whose sayings in the collection Analects become the source of his teachings
Chinese philosopher; taught about Daoism (following the way of nature) and yin/yang
way or path
Yin and Yang
"Shaded and sunny" they are opposite but complementary extremes in Chinese culture
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the Kong's of the Chou dynasty and later the emperors of China in which heaven would bless authors of a just ruler, but would give the mandate to another of the ruler proved unjust
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the accepted curriculum to be studied and passed in order to hold civil office.
the collection of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism for study. They were written or edited by Confucius
Tao Te Ching
the Classic of-the-Way (tao) and Power (te)
Confucian ethical teachings that include the following values
Li (ritual, propriety, etiquette)
Hsiao (love within the family)
Xin (honesty and trustworthiness)
Jen (Benevolence, humaneness towards others, the highest confucian virtue)
Chung (loyalty to the state)
meaning "action without action," it centers on allowing nature to evolve without human interference
A religious practice based on the belief that deceased family members are still living and that they have an interest in family affairs and can influence the fates of family members.
rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy (qi)
Double 9th festival
A time when people wish for longevity and a safe and sound life. Climbing is one of the most popular ways to celebrate the festival. Apart from warding of river demons and avoiding disaster, ascending physically also symbolizes climbing to a higher position, and having a longer life, especially for elderly people.
The chinese festival marking the start of the new year, beginning on the second new moon after the winter solstice and ending on the full moon fifteen days later. It is marked by visits to family and friends, special meals, fireworks, and gift giving.
While the goal of confucian is to be Chun-Tzu (their virtues) the goal of a taoist is immortality. Taoists believe that actual physical immortality is a reachable goal. Immortality is expressed through union with tao.
From the Chinese meaning "proper" or "rites" in the practice of proper behavior
The supreme human virtue, doing one's best to treat others as one would wish to be treated. Benevolence, humaneness towards others.
A Japanese religion whose followers believe that all things in the natural world are filled with divine spirits. Dates from the early 8th century and incorporates the worship of ancestors and nature spirits and a belief in sacred power in both animate and inanimate things.
a divine being in the Shinto religion.
the practice of positioning objects, gravesites, buildings to achieve positive effects.
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