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Research Methods Exam 1
Terms in this set (51)
The fact that a measure actually measures the concept that it is supposed to measure is called the _______.
_____ is a technique used to control the impact of extraneous variables by distributing their effects equally across treatment conditions.
The philosophical principle that denies "free will" and asserts that all human behavior results from the individuals physiology an experiences.
a variable in research that affects the dependent variable, but is not associated with the independent variable is termed a(n) _____ variable.
The literal meaning of the word psychology is the study of ________.
In order for a scientific finding to be believed it must be able to be produced again in a process called _______.
The characterizing feature of ______ research is that there is an active manipulation of the independent variable.
A selective loss of participants from one groups or condition than from others in an experiment produces the threat to internal validity termed experimental ______ ______.
A time based change in the participants produces a threat to internal validity called _______.
An experiment where neither the participants nor the experimenter know which level of the independent variable that the subject is receiving is called ______.
A _____ is an assumption of science.
The notion that living things are governed by forces and energies (e.g. soul or spirit) that are different from those that govern the activity of inanimate objects.
Testable, Skeptical, Empiracle
I comparison to general everyday approaches to knowledge, Scientific approaches are:
the development of falsifiable theories
Science is a method of inquiry that generates knowledge about the natural world through:
Falsifiable, fruitful, consistent with related theories
Which of the following are good characteristics of a good scientific theory?
Can be explained by theory
Understanding occurs when observations:
The process of producing theory from data is called:
Qualification, Falsification, Validation
In the hypothetico-deducive system a test of theory can result in the _____ of the theory.
In a research study, the variable that is manipulated or is the predictor variable is the ______ variable.
_______ refers to the consistency of measurement, that the same result can be obtained when measuring the same thing on multiple occasions.
Is more parsimonious
Theory A explains a behavior using 10 propositions. Theory B explains the same behavior using 5 propositions. With respect to Theory A, Theory B:
Psychology cannot directly measure the mind, but does so indirectly by studying:
Her experamental and control groups are reasonably similar
If a doctor used random assignment in her research, then she can make the reasonable assumption that:
Control of behavior, understanding behavior, description of behavior, and prediction of behavior
What are the goals of psychology?
A cognitive psychologist has one randomly selected group of subjects learn a list of words that have very similar meanings in the morning. Another group learns with a list of similar sounding words in the afternoon. She fins that the similar meaning list is learned and remembered better than the similar sounding list. In this study, the memory ability of the subjects is a(n) ______ variable.
In the example, the age of the participants is a(n) _______ variable.
In the example, The time of day, morning or afternoon, is a (n) ______ variable.
In the example, The type of list, Similar meaning or sounds is a (n) ______ variable.
Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of an experiment?
The degree to which scores on the measuring instrument correlate with another known standard for measuring the variable being studied is called _____ validity.
Experimenters often use cover stories to disguise the actual research hypothesis so that subjects will not guess what it is. This is done in an attempt to eliminate:
cues present in experiment which tip the subject off of what is expected of them.
Independent Variable Contamination
IV brings about outcomes other than the intended outcome.
Beliefs of the researcher can change the results of the experiment
The idea that being monitored during an exp. has an unintended effect on your behavior
amount of attention received effects your behavior
what the subject expects the IV to effect will have an unintended effect on the subjects behavior
after receiving a pretest the subject is already more prepared for the post test even before any other treatment is involved
Biased selection, maturation, experimental mortality, regression towards the mean
History, Environment, instrumentation
Progressive error: Testing and Pretest sensitization
Placebo, Hawethorne, and Reactivity
Mental manipulation of information that is not present in front of you
Defining things according to the operation
Method of inquiry that generates knowledge above the natural world through the development of falsifiable theories that are both based upon and evaluated by objective observation.
The variable in an experiment that is the predicted variable or the measured variable.
these are hypothetical things that cannot be directly measured because they cannot be seen. Example: depression. Can be measured through operational definitions
No mathematical relationship, Simple categories. Example: sex
can be rank ordered (least to greatest) Example: Grades A,B,C,D,F
like ordinal, but with equal intervals
Like interval scale but with an absolute zero. Example: time
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