Chapter 10 - Cell Growth and Division
Terms in this set (109)
True or False. As a cell's size increases, its amount of DNA also increase.
False. As a cell's size increases, its amount of DNA stays the same
True or False. The amount of activity in a cell is related to its volume.
True or False. The smaller the cell, the smaller its ratio of surface area to volume.
False. The smaller the cell, the larger its ratio of surface area to volume
True or False. The information crisis in a cell is solved by the replication of DNA before cell division.
In the visual analogy of the growing town, what does the library represent? Identify two characteristics that make it a good choice for this analogy.
The library represents the cell's DNA. It is a good choice because a library contains information and typically there is only one per small town.
____ is the formation of new individuals.
For single-celled organisms, cell division is a form of _____ reproduction.
Most multicellular organisms reproduce by ____ reproduction.
Similarities between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Both produce new organisms. Both involve the transfer of genetic material from parent to offspring.
Differences between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
The offspring of asexual reproduction are genetically identical to their parents. The offspring of sexual reproduction have some genetic information from each parent. In asexual reproduction, cells separate to form a new individual. In sexual reproduction, two cells fuse.
Vascular tissue helps plants transport water against the force of gravity. Because of this, plants lack vascular tissue do not grow very tall. How is this situation similar to the information you have learned in this lesson. Explain.
Plants that lack vascular tissue cannot grow very tall because they cannot transport water very far. A cell cannot grow very large because if it did, it would be unable to transport needed materials into the cell and transport wastes out.
What are the two main reasons cell divide and why?
-Information overload: The larger the cell gets, the more demands it places on the DNA. Eventually, the cell's DNA cannot meet the cell's need.
-Exchange of materials: Cells take in nutrients and eliminate wastes through the cell membrane. The larger a cell's volume, the more materials it needs to function and the more waste it creates. A cell's volume increases at a faster rate than its surface area. As a cell grows, its surface-area-to-volume ratio becomes too small. The larger a cell gets, the harder it is for enough materials to move across its cell membrane.
What solves the information overload and materials exchange problems?
What 3 things does asexual reproduction do?
Produces genetically identical organisms, occurs in many single-celled organisms and in some multicellular organisms, and allows rapid reproduction of organisms in favorable environments.
What 3 things does sexual reproduction do?
Produces organisms with genetic information from both parents, occurs in most animals and plants and in many single-celled organisms, and increases in genetic diversity, which aids species survival in changing environments.
Packages of DNA called ____ hold a cell's genetic information
_____ chromosomes consist of a single, circular strand of DNA
____ chromosomes are highly organized structures
The DNA winds around the histone proteins, forming _____
Chromosomes make the precise separation of ___ possible during cell division
Define: Cell Cycle
the series of events in the growth and division of a cell
What happens in the prokaryotic cell cycle
The cell grows, duplicates its DNA, and divides by pinching in the cell membrane.
What are the four stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle?
G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase
What are the first 3 stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle (G1, S, G2) referred to?
What happens in the G1 phase?
the cell grows
What happens in the S phase?
the cell replicates its DNA
What happens in the G2 phase?
the cell produces organelles and materials for division
What happens in the M phase?
the cell divides into two stages - mitosis, the division of the nucleus, and cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm
What are the four stages main of mitosis?
(Interphase), Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens in prophase?
a cell's genetic material condenses, a spindle starts to form, and the nuclear envelope breaks down
What happens in metaphase?
the duplicated chromosomes line up and spindle fibers connect to the centromeres
What happens in anaphase?
sister chromatids separate and move towards the centrioles
What happens in telophase?
the chromosomes begin to unwind and a nuclear envelope reforms
division of the cytoplasm differs in plants cells and animal cells
What happens in cytokinesis, in animal cells?
the cell membrane draws in and pinches off
What happens in cytokinesis, in plant cells?
a cell plate forms, followed by a new cell membrane, and finally a new cell wall forms
Cells carry genetic information in packages of DNA called _____.
Most ____ have only one circular strand of DNA.
In eukaryotic cells, the genetic structure consists of DNA and a tightly wound protein, which together form a substance called ____.
The beadlike structures formed by DNA wrapped around _____ molecules are called nucleosomes.
____ make possible the precise separation of DNA during cell division
What is the name of the type of cell division that occurs in the prokaryotic cell cycle?
What happens during interphase?
The cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares for cell division.
In eukaryotic cells, what happens in the G1 phase that differs from the G2 phase?
In the G1 phase, the cell grows. In the G2 phase, the cell gets ready for mitosis.
In eukaryotic cells, what are the two main stages of cell division?
Mitosis and cytokinesis
During prophase, when cell chromosomes become visible, what are the duplicated strands of DNA called? What is the name for the area in which these duplicated strands are joined?
Duplicated strands of chromosomal DNA are called chromatids, or sister chromatids, and they are joined by a centromere.
What structures are spindle fibers attached to that help pull the paired chromosomes apart?
The spindle fibers are attached to centrioles that move toward the poles of the cell, pulling the chromatids apart.
What phase of mitosis is this? The chromosomes separate and begin to move to opposite sides of the cell.
What phase of mitosis is this? The chromosomes become visible. The centrioles take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus.
What phase of mitosis is this? A nuclear envelope re-forms around each cluster of chromosomes. The nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus.
What phase of mitosis is this? The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
Similarities of Cytokinesis in plant and animal cells
In cytokinesis, both a plant and animal cell divides the cytoplasm and separates the two new nuclei of the daughter cells. It usually occurs at the same time as telophase.
Differences of Cytokinesis in plant and animal cells
In a plant cell, a cell plate grows across the center of the dividing cell, between the two new nuclei of the daughter cells. In an animal cell, the cell membrane pinches inward, between the two new nuclei of the daughter cells
During certain stages of their life cycle, some cells repeatedly undergo mitosis but do not undergo cytokinesis. What would you expect to see if you looked at such cells, or a tissue made up of such cells, under a microscope? Explain your answer.
Under microscopic examination, a tissue whose cells complete all parts of the cell cycle except cytokinesis would appear to be made up of a mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei scattered in it.
Dozens of ___ regulate the cell cycle
____ are proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
_____ _____ work both inside and outside the cell
What do internal regulators do?
allow the cell cycle to proceed when certain events have occurred within a cell (stops cells from going to the next stage, when the internal regulatory proteins haven't started/finished)
External regulators called ____ ___ stimulate the cell cycle
What do external regulators do?
It causes the cell cycle to slow down or stop (this speeds up or slows down/stops the cell cycle)
What is apoptosis?
programmed cell death that plays a key role in the development of tissues and organs
What is cancer caused by?
defects in genes that regulate cell growth
What are 3 treatments for cancer?
removal of cancerous tumors, radiation, which interferes with the copying of DNA in multiplying cancer cells, and chemotherapy, which is the use of chemicals to kill cancer cells
True or False. Cells tend to continue dividing when they come into contact with other cells.
False. Cells tend to stop dividing when they come into contact with other cells
True or False. Cell division speeds up when the healing process nears completion.
False. Cell divisions slows down when the healing process nears completion
True or False. Proteins called growth factors regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.
False. Proteins called cyclin regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.
True or False. If chromosomes have not attached to spindle fibers during metaphase, an internal regulatory protein will prevent the cell from entering anaphase.
True or False. Growth factors are external regulatory proteins that slow down the cell cycle.
False. Growth factors are external regulatory proteins that speed up the cell cycle
True or False. Once apoptosis is triggered, a cell proceeds to self-destruct.
Growth, DNA synthesis, mitosis, cytokinesis, these are all things that involve what?
Preventing a cell from entering mitosis until chromosomes are replicated, happens because of what?
Internal regulatory proteins
Speeding up the cell cycle for embryonic growth and wound healing and slowing down the cell cycle so that one body tissue's growth does not disrupt another's, happens because of what?
External regulatory proteins
What is cancer?
A disorder in which body cell lose the ability to control growth
What are two basic types of tumors? Explain how they are different?
Tumors may be malignant or benign. A malignant tumor is cancerous and will invade
and destroy healthy tissue around it or in other parts of the body. A benign tumor is noncancerous and does not spread into surrounding tissues or to other parts of the body.
Why can cancer be life threatening?
As the cancer cells spread, they absorb the nutrients needed by other cells, block nerve connections, and prevent the organs they invade from functioning properly. Soon, the delicate balances that exist in the body are disrupted, and life-threatening illness results.
How do radiation and chemotherapy affect cancer cells?
Radiation disrupts the cancer cell cycle by interfering with the copying of DNA.
Chemotherapy kills cancer cells.
Cancer cells do not respond to signals that regulate cell ____
Cancer cells form a mass of cells called a _____
Cancer cells may break lose and ____ throughout the body
Cancer cells form tumors in other tissues by ___
Hair grows from hair follicles, pockets of continually dividing cells in the outer layer of the skin. New cells are added to the base of a hair shaft, inside each follicle. Use what you have learned in this lesson to explain why cancer patients often lose their hair when receiving chemotherapy and grow more hair after chemotherapy stops.
The chemicals stop cell division in both cancer cells and healthy cells, such as the ones that produce hair. When no new cells are being added to the hair shafts, the shafts break and the hairs fall out. When chemotherapy stops, cell division in the hair follicles resumes and hair starts to grow again.
Multicellular organisms produce via sexual reproduction begin life as a ____ ____
Early cell divisions lead to the formation of an ____
Then, individual cells become specialized in both form and function through the process of _____
Once cells of a certain type, such as nerve cells or muscle cells, have formed, the cells cannot develop into a ____ ___ of cell.
During an organism's development, some cells _____ to become a wide variety of body cells
A fertilized egg and first few cells in an embryo are able to form any kind of cell and tissue. Such cell is termed ______
A _____ is an embryonic stage that consists of a hollow ball of cells.
A blastocyst is an embryonic stage that consists of a hollow ball of cells. These cells are able to become any type of body cell. Such cells are termed _____.
Unspecialized cells that can develop into differentiated cells are ____ ____.
Where are stem cells found in?
embryos and adults
Embryonic stem cells are the _____ cells of an early embryo
Adult stem cells are _____, which means they can produce many, but not all, types of differentiated cells.
Scientists want to learn about the signals that tell a cell to become either _____ or ______.
What are some potential benefits of stem cell research?
The repair or replacement of damaged cells and tissues
Why is research with human stem cells controversial?
It involves the ethical issues of life and death
Humans, pets, and petunias all pass through an early stage of development called a(n)
Cells become _____ through the process of differentiation
Scientists have mapped the outcome of every ____ ____ that leads to differentiation in the development of the microscopic worm C. elegans
Most cells in the adult body are no longer capable of what?
What is an example of a totipotent cell?
a fertilized egg
Cells that are pluripotent are unable to develop into tissue that what?
surrounds an embryo
Adult stem cells are best described as what?
Explain how stem cells are like the stem of a plant.
Many different types of cells can come from stem cells, like the branches emerging from a stem.
Embryonic stem cells can become what?
Neurons, fat cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophage, and blood cells
Which is NOT a NEW potential benefit of stem cell research?
A) growing new skin cells to repair a cut
B) replacing heart cells damaged by heart attacks
C) repairing breaks between nerve cells in spinal injuries
D) preventing suffering and death caused by cellular damage
A) growing new skin cells to repair a cut
What is the main reason that embryonic stem cell research is considered ethically controversial?
A) Embryos contain totipotent cells.
B) Embryos are the result of sexual reproduction.
C) Embryos from many different organisms must be used.
D) Embryos are destroyed in the process.
D) Embryos are destroyed in the process
What is one new technology that could make stem cell research less controversial?
A) implanting skin cells instead of stem cells in damaged tissue
B) developing the ability to switch on the genes that make an adult cell pluripotent
C) replacing stem cells with cancer cells
D) using the Internet to get more people to accept stem cell research
B) developing the ability to switch on the genes that make an adult cell pluripotent
Many plants such as orchids are grown by a technique called tissue culture. Small pieces of plant tissue from a leaf, stem, or root of a mature plant are placed in a medium that contains the proper nutrients. The cells first form a mass of undifferentiated cells, from which tiny roots, stems, and leaves eventually grow. How do the plant cells placed in a medium for tissue culture change in terms of their degree of specialization? What types of animal cells are most similar to the undifferentiated plant cells in a tissue culture? Explain your answer.
The plant cells first placed in a medium for tissue culture are differentiated cells. The cells produce undifferentiated cells that are pluripotent, or able to develop into all the specialized cell types and structures of the plant. The embryonic stem cells of an animal are the most similar to the plant cells that first develop in a tissue culture because they can develop into all the different cell types and structures of a specific animal.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
MCAT Biology | Kaplan Guide
Biology Chapter 10
Biology Chapter 10 - new book
Cell Growth and Division
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Paradigm Agent Codes
PHED 120 Final Review
DKA Golden Circle and Chapter Operations pt 2
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
10.3 Regulating The Cell Cycle
Biology Miller Levine Chapter 10.4
Biology 10.1: Cell Growth, Division, & Reproduction
7.4 Homeostasis and Cells