AP World History - Midterm Review

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potter's wheelA technological advance in pottery making; invented circa 6000 B.C.E.; encouraged faster and higher-quality ceramic pottery productsSumeriansPeople who migrated into Mesopotamia circa 4000 B.C.E.; created the first civilization within the region; organized area into city-statescuneiformA form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tabletscity-stateA form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilization; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban-based kingziggurata massive tower building usually associated with Mesopotamian temple connectionsBabylonian EmpireUnified all of Mesopotamia circa 1800 B.C.E.; collapsed due to foreign invasion circa 1600 B.C.E.HammurabiThe most important Babylonian ruler; responsible for codification of the lawPharaohThe term used to denote the kings of ancient Egypt; the term, "great house" refers to the palace of the pharaohspyramidsMonumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohshieroglyphsForm of writing developed in ancient Egypt; more pictorial than Mesopotamian cuneiformKushAfrican state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile circa 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuriesmonotheismThe exclusive worship of one god; introduced by Jews into Middle Eastern civilizationPhoeniciansSeafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the MediterraneanHarappa and Mohenjo DaroMajor urban complexes of Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid patternAryansIndo-European nomadic, warlike, pastorialists who replaced Harappan civilizationHuanghe (Yellow) River BasinSite of the development of sedentary agriculture in ChinaShang1st Chinese dynasty (after the legendary Xia)OraclesShamans or priests in Chinese society who foretold the future through interpreting animal bones cracked by heat; inscriptions on bones led to Chinese writingideographic writingPictograph characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writingBig GeographyA term that draws attention to the global nature of world history.PaleolithicThe period that ended about 3,000 years after the end of the last Ice Age, it lasted until about 10,000 years ago. (Old Stone Age) The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.Human migration during Paleolithic eramovement of humans from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americaseglitarianequality among people (no social levels)toolsHumans developed a wider range of ____ specially adapted to different environments from tropics to tundraNeolithic Revolutionperiod of change from hunter-gatherer lifesyle to agricultural lifestyles associated with domestication, farming, and settlementpatriarchyfather based/male dominated societyclimatic changePermanent agricultural villages emerged first in the lands of the eastern Mediterranean, possibly as a response to what?weaponsPastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of of ____ and forms of transportation that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizationshorsesname one mode of new transportation by the pastoralistsartElites, both political and religious, promoted ____.record-keeping systems___ arose independently in all early civilization sand subsequently were diffusedNile RiverThis river flooded regularly.Tigris RiverThis river's floods were unpredictable.MesopotamianUnpredictable weather patterns affected the development of the _____ civilization.Egyptian_______art demonstrated little change for nearly 1000 years.Nubia and KushKingdoms upriver from Egypt.Harappan King or Priest FigureJerichoOne of the earliest cities: located in modern Israel.absolutismconcept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliament's, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies - eg. Louis XIV of Francedivine rightthe idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to GodParliamentary monarchyoriginated in England and the Netherlands in the 17th century. Kings are partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliamentsproletariatclass of working people who do not own property, typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor. A product of economic changes of the 16th and 17th centuries in Europeethnocentrismregarding one's own race or cultural group as superior to othersconquistadorthe Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th centurycolonialismcontrol by one power over a dependent area or peopleViceroymember of the nobility appointed to rule a country or province as the deputy of the sovereign - means in place of the kingColumbian Exchangeglobal transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the AmericasJanissariesOttoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies - had a great deal of political influence after 15th centuryDevshirmein the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking children from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiersShahKing, title of the Mughal rulersVizierhead of the Ottoman bureaucracy, after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultanHaremthe women in a Muslin household, including the mother, sisters, wives, concubines, daughters, entertainers, and servants - the Ottoman Sultans had large haremstsar, czarRussian emperor (from the Roman title Caesar)boyarslandowning nobles in Russia, had less power than their western Europe counterpartsCossackspeasants recruited to migrate to lands in the southern parts of Russia, combined agriculture with military conquestsWesternizationto influence with ideas, customs, practices, etc. of western EuropeMultinational Statean empire composed of many nations, nationalities, ethnic groups, cultures, religions, etc...eg. Russia, Ottoman Empirecommercializationan economic system in which merchants trade and invest money in order to make a profit; prices are determined by supply and demandmercantilisman economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than were purchasedcoerciveforced labor, including slaveryencomiendaa grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it. Established a framework for relations based on economic dominanceMita (aka repartimiento)forced labor system replacing Indian slaves and encomienda workers; used to mobilize labor for mines and other projects. European adaptation of the Inca system that required all able-bodied subjects to work for the state a certain numbers of days each yearindentured servitudelabor system where a person is bound by indentures to work for another for a specified time, especially in return for payment of travel expenseshaciendasrural agricultural and herding estates; produced for consumers in America; basis for wealth and power of the local aristocracyplantations/plantation systemsa large estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, where cash crops such as cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugarcane are cultivated, using a form of coercive labor (usually slavery)peninsularesSpanish-born residents of the New Worldcreoles/criollosin Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Latin America to Spanish parentsCastasa Spanish and Portuguese term used in 17th and 18th centuries mainly in Spanish America to describe as a whole the mixed-race people which appeared in the post-Conquest periodgalleonslarge, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from the New World Colonies to Spain; basis of convoy system utilized for transportation of bullionmestizomixed Spanish and Native American ancestrymulattoesmixed Spanish and African ancestrytriangular tradethe transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North Americamiddle passagethe voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves -- so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular tradeChattel slaveryconcept of believing that slaves were merely objects, not humanssalt-water slavesAfrican born slavesCreole slavesAmerican born descendants of salt-water slavesSecularconcerned with worldly rather than spiritual mattersProtestanta member of the Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformationindulgencesa pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin, sold by the Catholic Church to help raise $$PredestinationChristian doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved (John Calvin)Bhaktia popular movement in Hinduism centered around the personal worship of gods, especially Vishnu and Shiva - especially popular with womenBartolomeu DiasPortuguese explorer who sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488 and discovered the Cape of Good HopeChristopher Columbusexplorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean opened up the Americas to European exploration. Sailed for the Spanish crown in an attempt to find a new trade route to the East IndiesMartin Lutherwrote the 95 Theses as a critique of the Catholic Church while serving as a monk in Germany and is credited with starting the Protestant ReformationHernan CortesSpanish conquistador who led an expedition into the Aztec Empire and later caused the fall of the empireFrancisco PizarroSpanish conquistador in South America who conquered the Incan EmpireVasco de GamaPortuguese explorer. Commanded the first ships to sail directly from Europe to IndiaAkbarRuler of the Mughals known for having a liberal outlook on all faiths and beliefs. He expanded the empire and created Din-i-llahi to bring about religious unityAtahualpaLast Inca emperor before the Spanish conquest; was in the middle of a civil war with his brother when Francisco Pizarro showed upMontezuma IIAztec ruler during the Spanish conquest of modern day Mexico. Expanded the empire's boundaries and was killed during an attack on the capital city, TenochtitlanElizabeth Ilast monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Her reign was called the "Golden Age of England," known for the flourishing of English drama and the skilled adventurersLouis XIVConsolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France and was mimicked by many other rulers during this time period. Built the Palace of Versailles and relocated the French court out thereIvan IVGrand Prince of Moscow - first ruler to be crowned as Czar of all the Russias and managed many changes that allowed Russia to become an empirePeter the GreatRussian tsar who presided over the Westernization of the empire. He moved the capital to St. Petersburg and changed the social and political systems of Russia into more modern, scientific and European-oriented systemsKing Nzinga/Afonso Iruler of the Kingdom of the Kongo during the height of the Portuguese slave trade in the region. Converted to Christianity and adopted some European ideas during his reignTokugawa Ieyasulast of the three great unifiers of Japan and founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, which lasted until the mid-19th century. Presided over the beginning of Japanese isolationismAurangzebMughal emperor. He expanded the empire, but abandoned the policies of religious toleration set in place by his predecessorsSuleyman the MagnificentOttoman ruler known for his reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system, which gave him the nickname "the Lawgiver." Presided over the apex of Ottoman military, political, and economic powerJohn Calvinpastor during the Protestant Reformation who preached the idea of predestinationGalileo GalileiItalian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. Was put on trial by the Catholic Church for defending Copernicus' heliocentric theoryThomas HobbesEnglish philosopher who lived during the English Civil War. He was a champion of absolutism for the sovereign and the idea of "social contract" - the people give up their rights to the absolute authority of the governmentNicolaus CopernicusRenaissance mathematician and astronomer - discovered the heliocentric theory of the universe but waited until he was on his deathbed to publish his findings. His theory was rejected by the Catholic ChurchKing Henry VIIIRuled 1509-1547. Major figure of the Protestant reformation who married women to try and have a male heir to succeed himCharles Vemperor of the Holy Roman Empire, nephew of King Henry's wife, Anne BoleynAnglican ChurchChurch of Englandinquisitionestablished in the late twelfth century to root out and punish nonbelieversJesuitssociety of JesusPeace of Augsburgallowed each German state to choose whether its ruler, and therefore all of its churches and inhabitants, would be Catholic or LutheranEdict of Nantesallowed the Huguenots to practice their faithPeace of Westphaliaallowed each area of the Holy Roman Empire to select one of three religious options: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or CalvinismKing James Iwrote The True Law of Free Monarchy, asserting that the monarch was free to make the lawsJean Bodinadvocated the divine right of the monarchy, the claim that the right to rule was given to a king by Godempiricisminsisted upon the collection of data to back up a hypothesisSir Issac Newtoncombined Galileo's laws of terrestrial motion and Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion to publish a work on gravitational force called Principiacapitalmaterial wealth available to produce more wealthmaritime empiresempires based on sea travelPrince Henry the Navigatorthe first in a series of European royalty to sponsor seafaring expeditions, searching for an all-water route to the east as well as for African goldcaravela small, three-masted sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century. Allowed sailors to survive storms at sea better than earlier-designed shipsHispaniolathe name Columbus gave to the island now occupied by Haiti and the Dominican RepublicTreaty of TordesillasSpain and Portugal divided the Americas between them, Spain reserving all land to the west of a meridian and Portugal reserving all land to the east of that meridianzambosthose of mixed indigenous and African ancestrynorthwest passagea route through or around North America that would lead to East AsiaJohn Cabotan explorer sent to America by an English king to look for a northwest passageLondon Companyjoint-stock company headquartered in England that owned JamestownHenry Hudsonsent by the Dutch to explore the East Coast of North AmericaKievlocation of a slave market. Had formerly been the major link between trade routes that stretched from Scandinavia to the Islamic and Byzantine areas in the south and eastSlavophilesbelieved that Russia should base its development on its own history and character and not use Western European culture as a modelpogromvicious anti-Jewish attacksBedouinnomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula with a culture based on herding camels and goatsMeccaArabian commercial center; dominated by the Quraysh; the home of Muhammad and the future center of IslamMedinatown northeast of Mecca; asked Muhammad to resolve its intergroup differences; Muhammad's flight to Medina, the hijra, in 622 began the Muslim calendarUmayyadclan of the Quraysh that dominated Mecca; later an Islamic dynastyMuhammad(570-632); prophet of Allah; originally a merchant of the QurayshQur'anthe word of god as revealed through Muhammad; made into the holy book of IslamUmmacommunity of the faithful within IslamFive Pillarsthe obligatory religious duties for all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)Caliphthe successor to Muhammad as head of the Islamic communityAlicousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for the development of shi'ismAbu Bakrsucceeded Muhammad as the first caliphJihadIslamic holy warSunnisfollowers of the majority interpretation within Islam; included the UmayyadsShi'afollowers of Ali's interpretation of IslamDhimmis"the people of the book"-- Jews, Christians; later extended to Zoroastrians and HindusAbbasidsdynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in 750; their capital was at BaghdadHadiths"traditions" of the prophet Muhammad; added to the Qur'an, form the essential writings of IslamDhowsArab sailing vessels; equipped with lateen sails; used by Arab merchantsSeljuk Turksnomadic invaders from central Asia; staunch Sunnis; ruled from the 11th c. in the name of the AbbasidsCrusadesinvasions of western Christians into Muslim lands, especially Palestine; captured Jerusalem and established Christian kingdoms enduring until 1291UlamaIslamic religious scholars; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; opposed to non-Islamic thinkingSufisIslamic mystics; spread Islam to many Afro-Asian regionsMongolscentral Asian nomadic peoples; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliphChinggis Khan(1162-1227); Mongol ruler; defeated the Turkish Persian kingdomsMamluksRulers of Egypt; descended from Turkish slavesArabic numeralsIndian numerical notation brought by the Arabs to the WestShrivijayatrading empire based on the Malacca straits; its Buddhist government resisted Muslim missionaries; when it fell, southeastern Asia was opened to IslamMalaccaflourishing trading city in Malaya; established a trading empire after the fall of ShrivijayaMalistate of the Malinke people centered between the Senegal and Niger riversMansatitle of the ruler of MaliIbn BattutaArab traveler throughout the Muslim worldSundiatacreated a unified state that became the Mali empire; died in 1260Songhaysuccessor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of the Niger valley; capital at GaoEast African trading portsurbanized commercial centers mixing African and Arab cultures; included Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwas, Pate, and ZanzibarGreat Zimbabwewith massive stone buildings and walls, incorporates the greatest early buildings in sub-Saharan AfricaGreek FireByzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; used to drive back the Arab fleets attacking ConstantinopleIconsimages of religious figures venerated by Byzantine ChristiansManzikertSeljuk Turk victory in 1071 over Byzantium; resulted in loss of the empire's rich Anatolian territoryCyril and MethodiusByzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and Balkans; responsible for creation of Slavic written script called CyrillicKievcommercial city in Ukraine established by Scandinavians in 9th c; became the center for a kingdom that flourished until 12th cRuriklegendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of Kievan Rus' in 855Vladmir Iruler of Kiev (980-1015); converted kingdom to Orthodox ChristianityRussian OrthodoxyRussian form of Christianity brought from Byzantine EmpireTatarsMongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th c; left Russian church and aristocracy intactMiddle Agesthe period in western European history between the fall of Roman Empire and the 15th cGothican architectural style developed during the 13th and 14th c in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external support on main wallsVikingsseagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the 8th to 11th c; pushed across the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and North America; formed permanent territories in Normandy and SicilyManorialismrural system of reciprocal relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; peasants exchanged labor for use of land and protectionSerfspeasant agricultural laborers within the manorial systemThree-field systempractice of dividing land into thirds, rotating between two different crops and pasturage-- an improvement making use of manureClovisKing of the Franks; converted to Christianity circa 496Carolingiansroyal house of Franks from 8th c to 10th cCharles Martelfirst Carolingian king of the Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732CharlemagneCarolingian monarch who established large empire in France and Germany circa 800Holy Roman Emperorspolitical heirs to Charlemagne's empire in northern Italy and Germany; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchyFeudalismpersonal relationship during the Middle Ages by which greater lords provided land to lesser lords in return for military serviceVassalsmembers of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyaltyWilliam the Conquerorinvaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in EnglandMagna CartaGreat charter issued by King John of England in 1215; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy, and the supremacy of lawParliamentsbodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the principle that kings ruled with the advice and consent of their subjectsHundred Years Warconflict between England and France over territory (1337-1453) Established a since of Nationalism with each country. Joan of Arc united the French and promoted French patriotism.Pope Urban IIorganized the first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim controlInvestiturethe practice of appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory attempted to stop lay investiture, leading to a conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IVGregory VII11th c pope who attempted to free church from secular control; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishopsThomas Aquinascreator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of GodScholasticismdominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problemsHanseatic Leaguean organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial allianceGuildsassociations of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeships, guaranteed good workmanship; held a privileged place in citiesBlack Deathbubonic plague that struck Europe in the 14th c; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure; decimated populations in AsiaPeriod of the Six Dynastiesera of continuous warfare (220-589) among the many kingdoms that followed the fall of the HanJinshititle given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high officeMahayana (Pure Land) Buddhismemphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses in East AsiaWuzongTang emperor (841-847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of ConfucianismSouthern Songsmaller surviving dynasty (1127-1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history. Fell to the Mongols in 1276 and eventually taken over in 1279.Grand Canalgreat canal system begun by Yangdi; joined Yellow River region to the Yangtze basinJunksChinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsulaFlying moneyChinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currencyFootbindingmale imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household; seen a beautiful to the elite.Taika reformsattempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript armyFujiwaramid-9th c Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial powerBushiregional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armiesSamuraimounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperorSeppukuritual suicide in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honorGempei warsWaged for 5 years from 1180-1185, on the island of Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in the destruction of Taira and also resulted in the feudal ageShogunsmilitary leaders of the bakufuDaimyoswarlord rulers of small states following Onin war and disruption of Ashikaga shogunate; holding consolidated into unified and bounded mini-statesSinificationextensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regionsTrung Sistersleaders of a rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 CE; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese societyKhmers and ChamsIndianized Vietnamese peoples defeated by northern government at HanoiChinggis Khanborn in 1170s; elected supreme Mongol ruler (khagan) in 1206; began the Mongols rise to world power; died 1227Shamanistic religionMongol beliefs focused on nature spiritsBatugrandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Golden Horde; invaded Russian in 1236Golden Hordeone of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after death of Chinggis Khan; conquered and ruled Russua during the 13th and 14th cIlkhan khanateone of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; eventually included much of Abbasid empireHulegugrandson of Chinggis Khan and rule of Ilkhan khanate; captured and destroyed Abbasid BaghdadMamluksMuslim slave warriors; established dynasty in Egypt; led by Baibars defeated Mongols in 1260Kubilai Khangrandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271White Lotus Societysecret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynastyOttoman EmpireTurkish empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending through the Middle East and the Balkans; conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended Byzantine EmpireMing Dynastyreplaced Mongal Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted large trade expeditions to southern Asia and Africa; later concentrated on internal development within ChinaEthnocentrismjudging foreigners by the standards of one's own group; leads to problems in interpreting world historyMuhammad's primary historical achievementspread of IslamSilk Road Trade systemKingdom of MaliInca and Rome both hadextensive road systemsImportant continuity in social structure of states and empires 600-1450land holding aristocracies, patriarchies, peasant systems still in placeChampa Ricetributary gift from Vietnam to China, led to population increaseDiasporic communitiesmerchant communities that introduced their own cultures into other areasTrans Saharan tradeDominated my Muslims in 13th century after rise of Islamic caliphates..Effect of Muslim conquestscollapse of other empires, mass conversionTang Dynastyfollowed Sui, established tributary states in Vietnam and Korea, influence Japan, Established strong Buddhist and Confucian presenceBlack Deathplague that originated with Mongols, led to mass population decrease in Europe, later weakened faith in Christian church and increased the power of serfs/peasants. Led partly to fall of Feudal structures in Europe.Indian Ocean Maritime TradeCities that rose during this time due to increased tradeNovgorod, Constantinople, TimbuktuTimbuktutrade center of Mali, cosmopolitan city that saw the blending of many different cultures and peopleNew forms of monetizationChecks, Bills of ExchangeBantu Migrationsfootbindingbegan during Tang/Song era, demonstrates objectification and oppression of women, abolished during Yuan and brought back during MingMarco Polotraveler/merchant from Europe who spend 17 years at court of Kublai KhanAhura MazdaIn Zoroastrianism, the good god who rules the world.Alexander the GreatAlexander III of Macedon (356-323 B.C.E.), conqueror of the Persian Empire and part of northwest India.AryansIndo-European pastoralists who moved into India about the time of the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization; their role in causing this collapse is still debated by historians.AshokaThe most famous ruler of the Mauryan Empire (r. 268-232 B.C.E.), who converted to Buddhism and tried to rule peacefully and with tolerance.Caesar AugustusThe great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar who emerged as sole ruler of the Roman state at the end of an extended period of civil war (r. 31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.).Cyrus (the Great)Founder of the Persian Empire (r. 557-530 B.C.E.); a ruler noted for his conquests, religious tolerance, and political moderation.Darius IGreat king of Persia (r. 522-486 B.C.E.) following the upheavals after Cyrus's death; completed the establishment of the Persian Empire.Greco-Persian WarsTwo major Persian invasions of Greece, in 490 B.C.E. and 480 B.C.E., in which the Persians were defeated on both land and sea.Gupta EmpireAn empire of India (320-550 C.E.). Known as the Golden Age of India with many achievements.Han dynastyChinese dynasty that restored unity in China softened legalist policies. Begun in 202 B.C. by Liu Bang, the dynasty ruled China for more than 400 years. A Golden Age of China.Hellenistic eraThe period from 323 to 30 B.C.E. in which Greek culture spread widely in Eurasia in the kingdoms ruled by Alexander's political successors.HerodotusGreek historian known as the "father of history" (ca. 484-ca. 425 B.C.E.). His Histories enunciated the Greek view of a fundamental divide between East and West, culminating in the Greco-Persian Wars of 490-480 B.C.E.Mandate of HeavenThe ideological underpinning of Chinese emperors, this was the belief that a ruler held authority by command of divine force as long as he ruled morally and benevolently.Mauryan EmpireA major empire (322-185 B.C.E.) that encompassed most of India. This is the empire of Ashoka and the spread of Buddhism in India.PatriciansWealthy, privileged Romans who dominated early Roman society.Pax RomanaThe "Roman peace," a term typically used to denote the stability and prosperity of the early Roman Empire, especially in the first and second centuries C.E.Peloponnesian WarGreat war between Athens (and allies) and Sparta (and allies), lasting from 431 to 404 B.C.E. The conflict ended in the defeat of Athens and the closing of Athens's Golden Age.PersepolisThe capital and greatest palace-city of the Persian Empire, destroyed by Alexander the Great.Persian EmpireA major empire that expanded from the Iranian plateau to incorporate the Middle East from Egypt to India; flourished from around 550 to 330 B.C.E.PlebiansPoorer, less privileged Romans who gradually won a role in Roman politics.Punic WarsThree major wars between Rome and Carthage in North Africa, fought between 264 and 146 B.C.E., that culminated in Roman victory and control of the western Mediterranean.Qin DynastyA short-lived (221-206 B.C.E.) but highly influential Chinese dynasty that succeeded in reuniting China at the end of the Warring States period.Qin ShihuangdiLiterally "first emperor" (r. 221-210 B.C.E.) forcibly reunited China and established a strong and repressive state. Used Legalism, standardized currency and weights and built the Terra cotta army.WudiHan emperor (r. 141-86 B.C.E.) who began the Chinese civil service system by establishing an academy to train imperial bureaucrats.XiongnuNomadic peoples to the north of the Great Wall of China who were a frequent threat to the stability of the Chinese state.AristotleA Greek polymath philosopher (384-322 B.C.E.); student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.Bhagavad GitaA great Hindu epic text, part of the much larger Mahabharata, which affirms the performance of caste duties as a path to religious liberation.BrahmanThe "World Soul" or final reality in upanishadic Hindu belief.BrahminsThe priestly caste of India.BuddhismThe cultural/religious tradition first enunciated by Siddhartha Gautama in India.ConfucianismThe Chinese philosophy first enunciated by Confucius, advocating the moral example of superiors as the key element of social order.ConfuciusThe founder of Confucianism (551-479 B.C.E.); an aristocrat of northern China who proved to be the greatest influence on Chinese culture in its history.ConstantineRoman emperor (r. 306-337 C.E.) whose conversion to Christianity paved the way for the triumph of Christianity in Europe.DaoismA Chinese philosophy/popular religion that advocates simplicity and understanding of the world of nature, founded by the legendary figure Laozi.Filial pietyThe honoring of one's ancestors and parents, a key element of Confucianism.Greek rationalismA secularizing system of scientific and philosophic thought that developed in classical Greece in the period 600 to 300 B.C.E.; it emphasized the power of education and human reason to understand the world in nonreligious terms.HinduismA word derived from outsiders to describe the vast diversity of indigenous Indian religious traditions.HippocratesA very influential Greek medical theorist (ca. 460-ca. 370 B.C.E.); regarded as the father of medicine.Jesus of NazarethThe prophet/god of Christianity(ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E.).YahwehA form of the Hebrew name of God used in the Bible. The monotheistic religion developed by the Hebrews, emphasizing a sole personal god with concerns for social justice.KarmaIn Hinduism, the determining factor of the level at which the individual is reincarnated, based on purity of action in the prior existence.LaoziA legendary Chinese philosopher of the sixth century B.C.E.; regarded as the founder of Daoism.LegalismA Chinese philosophy distinguished by an adherence to clear laws with vigorous harsh punishments.MokshaIn Hindu belief, liberation from separate existence and union with Brahman. The ultimate goal of Hindus and freedom from the cycle of rebirth.Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha)The Indian prince (ca. 566-ca. 486 B.C.E.) who founded Buddhism.SocratesThe first great Greek philosopher to turn rationalism toward questions of human existence (469-399 B.C.E.).UpanishadsIndian mystical and philosophical works, written between 800 and 400 B.C.E.VedasThe earliest religious texts of India, a collection of ancient poems, hymns, and rituals that were transmitted orally before being written down ca. 600 B.C.E.Warring States PeriodPeriod in China from 403 to 221 B.C.E. that was typified by disorder and political chaos.Yin and YangExpression of the Chinese belief in the unity of opposites.ZoroastrianismPersian monotheistic religion founded by the prophet Zarathustra.Caste SystemThe system of social organization in India that has evolved over millennia; it is based on an original division of the populace into four inherited classes, with the addition of thousands of social distinctions based on occupation, which became the main cell of social life in India.DharmaIn Indian belief, performance of the duties appropriate to an individual's caste; good performance will lead to rebirth in a higher caste.KshatriyaThe Indian social class of warriors and rulers.LatifundiaHuge estates operated by slave labor that flourished in parts of the Roman EmpirePericlesA prominent and influential statesman of ancient Athens (ca. 495-429 B.C.E.); presided over Athens's Golden Age of Democracy.SudraThe lowest Indian social class of varna; regarded as servants of their social betters; eventually included peasant farmersthe "three submissions"In Chinese Confucian thought, the notion that a woman is permanently subordinate to male control: first that of her father, then of her husband, and finally of her son.UntouchablesAn Indian social class that emerged below the Sudras and whose members performed the most unclean and polluting work.VaisyaThe Indian social class that was originally defined as farmers but eventually comprised merchants.Silk RoadTrade route stretching from China into Europe.SyncretismAttempted union or reconciliation of diverse or opposite tenets or practices, especially in philosophy or religion. (ex. Hellenistism)Ancestor VenerationThe custom of worshiping deceased ancestors who are considered still a part of the family and whose spirits are believed to have the power to intervene in the affairs of the living. Practiced in Classical China.Codificationthe action or process of arranging laws, rules or religious beliefs according to a system or plan.Jewish Diasporathe dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globeMonasticisma religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work; typically in a house of worship (ex. Christrianity and Buddhism)ReincarnationThe rebirth of the soul in a new body. A belief of both Hinduism and Buddhism.NirvanaThe goal of the Buddhist path. It is the ultimate spiritual goal in Buddhism and marks the release from rebirths.Mahayana Buddihismone of the two major traditions of Buddhism, now practiced in a variety of forms especially in China, Tibet, Japan, and Korea. Became more a religion and Buddha became viewed as a god.Theravada BuddhismOne of the two major traditions of Buddhism. It is more similar to the Buddha's origional philosophy and Buddha is seen as a teacher rather than a god. It is practiced mainly in Southeast Asia in places such as Sri Lanka, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos.5 Key RelationshipsRuler to subject, father to son, husband to wife, elder to younger and friend to friend. Confucius believed that if society follows these then it will lead to social harmony and order.Influence of Daoism on Chinese cultureMedical theories and practices, poetry, metallurgy, architectureReasons why Belief Systems SpreadMissionaries, merchants and trade routesAnimismThe ancient religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. All things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems,—considered alive with spiritual presence.PhoeniciansOne of the earliest trading empires in world history that dominated the Mediterranean region; created the world's first known alphabet system that was later adapted by the Greeks.Mayaa Mesoamerican civilization (Mexico) noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.TeotihuacanLocated in the Basin of Central Mexico, was the largest and most revered city in the history of Mesoamerica, and it flourished in a Golden Age during the Classic Period of the first millennium CE. Dominated by two gigantic pyramids and a huge sacred avenue, the city, its architecture, art, and religion would influence all subsequent Mesoamerican cultures, and it remains today the most visited ancient site in Mexico.Methods of Orginization and Legitimicy of Classical Empires and their Rulersadministrateve institutions (centralized governments, bureaucracies, legal systems), claiming divine rule (ex. Mandate of Heaven), promoted trade, projected military power over other lands using new technologies and techniques (standard currencies, diplomacies), building fortifications, defensive walls, roads, using new groups of military officers and soldiers from the conquered populationsRole of Imperial CitiesServed as centers of trade, public performances of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empiresMerchants in ChinaPlaced at the bottom of the social pyramid in China because they were viewed as greedy and selfishPatriarchya system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from itReasons for the Collapse of Classical EmpiresExcessive mobilization of resources, overexpansion, erosion of political institutions, social class tensions, spread of disease, security issues along borders, invasionsTrade Routes of the Classical EraEurasian Silk Roads, Trans-Saharan caravan routes, Inidan Ocean sea lanes, Mediterranean sea lanesNew Technologies of the Classical EraYoke, saddal, stirrupDomesticated pack animals used on Classical Trade RoutesHorse, camel, llamaMonsoonsa seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and Southeast Asia, blowing from the southwest between May and September and bringing rain (wet), or from the northeast between October and April (dry)Qanat Systeman ancient system of underground tunnels that supply mountain water to dry lower places in the Middle East. First used in the Persian Empire.Missionarya person sent on a religious mission, especially one sent to promote Christianity or Buddhism in a foreign landcity-statea city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state with its own leader; ex. Greece (polis)Classical Era600 BCE to 600 CE; characterized by the emergence of empires such as Persia, Rome, Han, the codification of world belief systems and trade routes of Afro-EurasiaRoman RepublicThe era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates.Universal ReligionsRefers to a religion believing their laws are binding for everyone. A religion that can spread to other lands and cultures and actively seeks converts (i.e. Christianity and Buddhism) Can be directly contrasted to ethnic religions, which are, limited by ethnic or national scope (i.e. Judaism, Zoroastrianism)Why did we develop belief systems?Because humans have always needed to understand natural phenomenon. We want to explain the world around us.PolytheismBelief in many godsMonotheismBelief in one GodAnimism-They practice nature worship -They believe that everything has a spirit -They communicated with and showed respect to ancestors. -It is practiced worldwide but mostly in Africa and the Americas.ShintoA Japanese religion whose followers believe that all things in the natural world are filled with divine spirits -"Way of the Gods" -Founded around the year 500 BCE -The Emperor of Japan was considered to be divine and a direct descendant of the Sun Goddess.HinduismA religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms. -Polytheistic -A result of cultural diffusion between the Aryans and other native people in India. -Practiced in India -The Vedas, Upanishads, etc.. were all significant writings.BrahmaThe term for the Supreme God and Universal Soul in Hinduism.ReincarnationIn Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding Basically SamsaraKarma(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation (life)DharmaFulfilling one's duty in lifeCaste SystemA Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily lifeJudaism-A religion with a belief in one god (Monotheistic) -It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. -Practiced worldwide but most Jews are in Israel. -They have 10 commandmentsBuddhismA religion founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama which teaches that the most important thing in life is to reach peace by ending suffering.The Four Noble TruthsThe core of the Buddhist teaching. There is suffering. There is a cause to suffering. There is an end to suffering. The is a path out of suffering (the Noble 8-fold path). 1. Life is full of pain and suffering 2. human desire causes this suffering 3. By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering 4. Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold PathThe Eightfold Path1. Know that suffering is caused by desire 2. Be selfless and love all life 3. Do not lie, or speak without a cause 4. Do not kill, steal, or commit other unrighteous acts 5. Do not do things which promote evil 6. Take effort to promote righteousness 7. Be aware of your physical actions, state of mind, and emotions. 8. Learn to meditate.ConfucianismA philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.Five Relationships in Confucianism:- Ruler to ruled - Father to Son - Older brother to Younger brother - Husband to Wife - Friend to FriendTaoism or Daoisman ideology whose central theme is the Way, a philosophy teaching that eternal happiness lies in total identification with nature and deploring passion, unnecessary invention; simple life of individuals -Ying and Yang is used to illustrate the natural harmony in the world.ChristianityA monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior. -Also has the Ten Commandments -Believe in the Holy Trinity Christians take part in sacraments.IslamA religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.The Five Pillars of Islam1. Confession of Faith 2. Prayer 3. Charity 4. Fasting 5. PilgrimageZoroastrianism- A dualistic faith, this means they believe in two gods representing good and evil -It was very important during the Sassanid Persian Dynasty.LegalismChinese philosophy developed by Hanfeizi; taught that humans are naturally evil and therefore need to be ruled by harsh laws

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