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Exam 1 Chapter 2
Terms in this set (89)
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds
ionic, covalent, hydrogen
What are ionic bonds?
attraction between cations and anions
What are covalent bonds?
strong electron bonds that share electrons
What are hydrogen bonds?
weak polar bonds based on partial electrical attractions
What are cations?
positively charged ions
What are anions?
negatively charged ions
What is an exergonic reaction?
reaction where it takes more energy to break the bond than form the bond thus releasing energy
Energy released from an exergonic reaction is usually what?
What is hydrolysis?
breaking stuff apart using water
What is an endergonic reaction?
energy is required to form a bond
Energy in an endergonic reaction is what?
A decomposition reaction is also known as?
What is a decomposition reaction?
breaking of chemical bonds
A synthesis reaction is also known as?
What is a synthesis reaction
forms chemical bonds
What is some of the work that ATP is involved in?
used as an on-off switch
How is ATP involved in transport work?
moves substances across cell membranes
How is ATP involved in mechanical work?
supplies energy needed for muscle contraction
How is ATP involved in chemical work?
supplies energy needed to produce multi-thousand types of macromolecules that the cell needs to exist
How is ATP involved in the on-off switch.
controls chemical reaction and sends messages
What is the law of mass action
reaction rates adjust to reach a new equilibrium by adding or removing reactants
What are enzymes?
How do catalysts increase rate of reaction?
by lowering the activation energy needed for the chemical reaction to start
What are the 4 facts you should know about enzymes
enzymes are not changed or used up in a reaction
enzymes are specific
enzymes are limited
enzymes are regulated
What is denaturation?
loss of shape and function due to heat or pH
What will enzymes work on?
What are substrates?
molecules that enzymes act upon
What are enzymes limited by?
interacts with water
does not interact with water
What is a colloid?
a solution of very large organic molecules
Colloid osmotic pressure in blood is due to ______.
A solution in which particles settle
amount of solute in a solvent
How is pH measured
the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
pH scale ranges from _____ to ____.
pH of ____ is neutral.
An acidic solution has a pH of what?
lower than 7
A low pH means that the solution is _____ and will have a _____ hydrogen ion concentration
A high pH means that the solution is _____ and will have a _____ hydrogen ion concentration
Hydrogen ion concentration and pH are _______ related
What is an acid?
a solute that adds hydrogen ions to a solution
_______ or ______ will dissociate completely in a solution
strong acids or bases
What is a base?
a solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution
Why does pH increase with the addition of a base
because its removing H+ from solution
What are salts?
solutes that dissociate into cations and anions other than hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions
Buffers _______ but do not _______
moderate pH, prevent changes in pH
What is an antacid
a basic compound that neutralizes acids and forms salt
What do carbohydrates do for the body?
provide the most energy
List the types of carbohydrates
glycogen, sugar, starch, cellulose
What is glycogen?
polymer of glucose
Where is glycogen stored?
liver and skeletal muscles
Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic molecules?
What are the types of lipids
Fatty acids, Eicosanoids, Glycerides, Steroids, phospholipids and glycolipids
Where are fatty acids derived from?
triglycerides or phospholipids
What are fatty acids important for and why?
fuel bc when metabolized they make large quantities of ATP
Fatty acids are saturated with _______ which means there are no _______
hydrogen; covalent bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids have _____ double bonds.
one or more double bonds
What are eicosanoids?
What are glycerides composed of?
fatty acids attached to glycerol molecule
What are the important functions of glycerides?
energy source, insulation, protection around organs
What are the types of steroids?
cholesterol, estrogen and testosterone, corticosteroids, calcitriol, bile salts
Cholesterol is a component of _________.
What are the functions of cholesterol?
Maintains consistency and fluidity of cell membrane
facilitates cell signaling
What is estrogen and testosterone?
What is corticosteroids?
What are the functions of corticosteroids?
control carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism; anti-inflammatory
How are corticosteroids anti-inflammatory?
reduce immune response
What is cacitriol?
Calcitriol is important in what?
Bile salts are derived from _____.
Bile salts are important during what?
What are phospholipids and glycolipids composed of?
diglycerides that are attached to either a phosphate group or sugar
Phospholipids and glycolipids are components of what?
What is the most abundant and important organic molecule?
What are the seven major functions of proteins?
support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination and control, defense
What protein metabolically regulates?
What protein defends body?
What protein coordinates and controls body?
hormones such as peptide hormones
Describe the structure of proteins
long chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Describe amino acid structure.
central carbon atom, hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxylic acid group and R group
Can proteins change shape?
Why does the resulting shape of protein greatly influence its ability to recognize and bind to other molecules?
What affects shape of proteins?
pH and temperature changes
Where are nucleic acids found?
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What is the function of DNA
determines inherited characteristics, directs protein synthesis, controls enzymes production, controls metabolism
What is the function of RNA
controls intermediate steps in protein synthesis
What are the three types of RNA
mesenger RNA, tranfer RNA, ribosomal RNA
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