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APUSH Semester 1 Final
Terms in this set (151)
Which of these was a common reaction by Indians to Europeans and represented a rejection of Chief Johnson's suggestions?
Which of the following factors best explains why Native American efforts to unite were rare?
Tribes had traditions of independence
Which of the following best explains the underlying cause of the Spanish actions described by Las Casas?
The primary audience that Las Casas hoped to influence by his writing was?
The monarchs of Spain
Which of the following factors that affected Native Americans is directly implied but not stated in this excerpt?
European Diseases were killing millions of Native Americans
Which of the following European nations wold be the least likely to share the characteristics Stannard uses in describing Columbus?
Which of the following is a reason historians are most likely to criticize the view of Columbus expressed in this excerpt?
It uses highly charged language
Based on Coronado's observations, which of the following best describe Spanish efforts in Mexico in the mid-16th century?
Exploring lands new to them
The activities of Coronado and other Spanish and Portugese explorers in the Americas in the 16th century primarily depended on the support of...
Most European kingdoms in the 17th century adopted the economic policy of ____, which looked upon trade, colonies, and the accumulation of wealth as the basis for a country's military and political strength. According to the doctrine, a government should regulate yrade and production to enable it to become more self-sufficient. Colonies were to provide raw materials to the parent country for the growth and profit of that country's industries. Colonies existed for one purpose only: to enrich the parent country
Acts of Trade and Navigation
implemented between 1650 and 1673
1. Trade to and from the colonies could be carried only by English or colonial-built ships, which could be operated only by English or colonial crews
2. All goods imported into the colonies, except for some perishables, had to pass through ports in England
3. Specified or "Enumerated" goods from the colonies could be exported to England only. Tobacco was the original "enumerated" good, but over the years, the list was greatly expanded.
Treatment of natives by Spanish
Even after diseases killed most natives, millions remained in these empires that they could incorporate as laborers in their own labor, leading to many native deaths from forced labor. The explorers and soldiers intermarried with natives as well as with Africans. The latter were captured in Africa and forced to travel to provide slave labor. A rigid class system developed, one dominated by pure-blooded Spaniards. Bartolome de Las Casas became an advocate for better treatment of natives and persuaded the king to institute the New Laws of 1542 which ended Indian slavery, halted forced Indian labor, and began to end the encomienda system which kept the Indians in serfdom. Juan Gines de Sepulveda argued that they were less than human, which led to the Valladolid Debate.
Treatment of natives by French
Viewed American Indians as potential economic and military allies. They maintained good relations with the tribes and built a trading post throughout St. Lawrence Valley, the Great Lakes region, and along the Mississippi River. Posed less threat to natives because they had few colonists, farms, or towns. Their soldiers assisted the Huron people in fighting their traditional enemy, the Iroquis.
Treatment of natives by English
Settled in areas without large native empires that could be controlled as a workforce, Also, they came in families rather than as single young men, so marriage with natives was less common. At least in Massachussetts they coexisted, traded, and shared ideas. Indians taught them how to grow new crops such as corn (maize) and showed them how to hunt in the forests. They traded various furs for manufactured goods. Peaceful relations, though, gave way to conflict and open warfare. The ____ had no respect for American Indian cultures which they viewed as "savage." American Indians saw their way of life being threatened as their land was being taken to support population. They expelled the natives rather than subjugating them.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. Europeans learned about many new plants and foods, including beans, corns, sweet and white potatoes, tomatoes, and tobacco. They also contracted syphilis. Europeans introduced sugar cane, bluegrasses, pigs and horses, wheel, iron implements, and gyms. Millions died due to low immunity including entire tribal communities.
Virginia and Maryland.To avoid persecution in England due to religious beliefs, several wealthy English Catholics emigrated to Maryland and established large colonial plantations. They were outnumbered by Protestant farmers.
Get rich quick & prospered from tobacco. Commercial and profit
Young, single men, few women/families, indentured servants, and later African slaves
New England Colonies
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Plymouth, Boston
migrated in family units; religious freedom; overpopulation in England;Congregationalists didn't like New Netherlands & wanted a land to themselves
Most importantly religious, but some commercial.
Families with many skills
Puritan governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Speaker of "City upon a hill"
In 1630, about a thousand Puritans led by him sailed for the Massachusetts shore and founded Boston and several other towns. A civil war in England in the 1630s drove some 15,000 more settlers to the Massachusetts Bay Colony--a movement known as the Great Migration
Which of the following religious groups were the authors of the Maryland Act of Toleration trying to protect?
Which of the following best summarizes the attitude toward religious beliefs expressed in this document?
Christians should be able to practice their faith without fear of prosecution
Based on the information in this excerpt, what is Samuel Kercheval's point of view toward Bacon and his followers?
They were frustrated men who were taking action because the government did not
Bacon's Rebellion was initiated by a group of farmers who felt most directly threatened by...
Conflicts with American Indians
Which of the following led the opposition to Bacon's Rebellion?
The colonial governor
Despite the success of tobacco in Virginia, the colony still faced problems and eventually became a...
Which of the following groups made up most of the servants referred to in the passage?
Indentured servants from Europe
The primary market for the Virginia tobacco crop during this period was...
How is the topic of Locke's writing similar to most writing in the colonies in the 18th century?
He wrote about politics, and most writing was about politics or religion
Locke's writing had the most direct influence on the...
Which of the following groups in the colonies in the late 17th century would be most critical of Locke's ideas?
Which of the following had an effect on attitudes toward traditional authority similar to the effect of the Zenger case?
The spread of the Great Awakening
Which group would most strongly support Zenger's position on the press?
Residents of cities
Which of the following was a long-term effect of the jury's decision in the Zenger Case?
The colonial press became more willing to criticize the British
According to Mayhew, the people should be willing to challenge abuses by the
Which of the following possible influences on Mayhew is most clearly reflected in his statement?
The Great Awakening
Mayhew would probably apply his warning, "not use our liberty for a cloak of maliciousness" to
What was the context in which Mayhew was writing?
Opposition to British rule of the colonies was increasing
Nathaniel Bacon, an impoverished gentleman farmer, seized upon the grievances of the western farmers to lead a rebellion against Berkeley's government. In 1676, he raised an army of volunteers and conducted a series of raids and massacres against American Indian villages on the Virginia frontier. Bacon's army succeeded in defeating the governor's forces and even burned the Jamestown settlement. He died of dysentery and the army collapsed.
The protests by the Paxton Boys occurred during a period when many colonists were objecting to British policies that were a result of the...
Seven Years' War
The concern expressed in this excerpt helps explain why the British passed the...
Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
1. the Port Act closed the port of Boston, prohibiting trade in and out until destroyed tea was paid for
2. The Massachusetts Government Act reduced power of legislature while increasing power of royal governor
3. The Administration of Justice Act allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in Great Britain
4. A fourth law expanded the Quartering Act to apply to all colonies
Quebec act: established Roman Catholicism as official religion of Quebec, set up a gov. without a representative assembly, and extended Quebec's boundary to the Ohio River.
1787. For the large territory lying between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River, the congress passed an oridinance that set the rules for creating new states. It granted limited self-government to the developing territory and prohibited slavery in the region.
Articles of Confederation
-winning the war
-land ordinance of 1785
-northwest ordinance of 1787
-financial:war debts unpaid and worthless paper money. no taxing power
-foreign: little respect for a new nation that could neither pay its debts nor take effective and united action in a crisis
-domestic: Shays Rebellion
Which of the following leaders from an earlier period represented a group in a similar situation as cited in this excerpt?
The resolution of the Stamp Act Congress expressed respect for which person or group?
For the first time, the Stamp Act placed on the colonies a tax that was...
Which of the following was a direct British response to the colonial views expressed by the Stamp Act Congress?
Declaratory Act stating the right to tax
Which of the following actions by the colonists is most similar to the one recommended in the excerpt above?
The Boston Tea Party
Which of the following is the underlying goal of the colonists in this excerpt?
Win political representaton
King George's rejection of the Olive Branch Petition demonstrates that he believed that most colonists...
had always planned to revolt
Which of the following documents most forcefully disagreed with the views King George expressed in this excerpt?
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
Which of the following groups or individuals would have been most likely to agree with King George?
In the context of the various disputes between the colonists and Britain, which of the following would be the most important right cited?
Section 2: all power comes from the people
Which of the rights in this excerpt is expressed in a way that would today be considered a limitation of individual rights?
Section 6: right to vote
The group most likely to oppose the ideas expressed in this excerpt would have been...
Tories such as William Franklin
For some the Revolutionary War was also a civil war because of the role played in the war by the...
Which of the following was the primary reason for Hamilton's call for American soldiers?
The British were recruiting African Americans
Hamilton's constitutional argument was based on which of the following types of powers?
Which of the following benefited most directly from the bank that Hamilton strongly supported?
Who of the following would be most critical of Hamilton's position on the bank?
One of the strongest reasons Washington and others warned against political parties was concern about...
In addition to this Farewell address, part of Washington;s legacy was that he...
established the precedent of a two-term limit
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were issued in reaction to the...
passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts
The dispute involving the Kentucky Resolutions demonstrated that some people had rejected George Washington's warning against...
Encouraging sectional differences
which individual or group among the following would be the strongest supporter of the Kentucky Resolution?
The War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
In the United States, support for the War of 1812 was the strongest from...
Frontier settlers who wanted land and protection from American Indians
Who of the following would be most likely to agree with German's position on the war?
Merchants from New England
Which of the following is the best support for German's claim that the United States has "abundant cause for war"?
The impressment of U.S. sailors
Which of the following describes a policy of Jefferson's that reflects the attitude toward Federalists expressed in this speech?
He attempted to gain the trust of Federalists by continuing the national bank
Jefferson's statement "that the minority possesses their equal rights, which equal law must protect" was supported by his actions with regard to...
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Jefferson's call to avoid entangling alliances is similar to advice found in...
Washington's farewell address
Tecumseh believed that which of the following would be the best way for the American Indians to respond to the desire of white settlers for land?
Forming a confederacy among all American Indians
Based on this excerpt, which of the following would Tecumseh most likely have objected to?
The Louisiana Purchase
Henry Clay's American System
Henry Clay of Kentucky, a leader of the House of Reps, proposed a comprehensiveness method for advancing the nation's economic growth. His plan consisted of three parts: 1) protective tariffs, 2)a national bank 3) internal improvements.
Clay argued that protective tariffs would promote American manufacturing and also raise revenue with which to build a transportation system of federally constructed roads and canals. A bank would keep the system running smoothly. The tariffs chiefly would benefit the East, internal improvements would promote growth in the West and the South, and the bank would aid in the economies in all sections. Two parts were already in place in 1816 but Madison and Monroe objected that the Constitution did not explicitly provide for the spending of federal money on roads and canals.
Which phrase by Burleigh best addresses the motives of the largest number of immigrants coming to the United States during the years from 1816 to 1848?
"Good pay for labor"
In the two decades following Burleigh's comments, the portions of the United States most affected by immigration were the...
Lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
Which of the following reinforced the message that Burleigh was sending to people who wanted to move to America?
Who of the following provided the strongest influence on President Monroe in the writing of the Monroe Doctrine?
John Quincy Adams
Monroe counted on which of the following European nations to be an ally if any nation challenged the Monroe Doctrine?
Britian, because it opposed the strengthening of its European rivals
Which best explains why the American people were so supportive of the Monroe Doctrine?
Based on the voting patterns shown in the chart, support for federal funding for internal improvements was strongest in...
Support for the bill would have been consistent with support for which of the following?
Economic in South vs. North
North: organized labor, urban life, some agriculture, new cities
South: agriculture, King Cotton, cotton gin, slaves
One of the primary reasons to form a union during this period was to...
Improve working conditions
Workers in the 1820s faced difficulty because of the problems with..
Urban workers such as the Philadelphia Mechanics union of trade associations believed they could improve their conditions through labor unions and...
Which of the following caused the movement described in the excerpt?
The opposition to foreigners is most similar to the view that many had toward which of the following in America at this time?
Free African Americans
The development of which of the following best demonstrates the growing power of the nativist movement in the mid-19th century?
A political party
The crop that best fits Downing'd description as one of "the great staples" in the mid-19th century america was...
The development of commercial farming in the Old Northwest by the time this excerpt was written gave support to...
Population growth in Eastern cities
1824 Presidential Election/Corrupt Bargain
The era of good feelings ended in political bad feelings in 1824, the year of a bitterly contested and divisive election. By then, the old congressional caucus system for choosing presidential candidates had broken down. As a result, four candidates of the Democratic-Republican party of Jefferson campaigned for presidency: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson. Jackson won the popular vote but he lacked a majority in the electoral college as required by the Constitution. Therefore the House of Reps. had to choose a president from among the top three candidates. Henry Clay used his influence in the House to provide John Quincy Adams with enough votes to win the election. When Adams appointed Clay his secretary of state, Jackson and his followers charged that the decision of the voters had been foiled by secret political maneuvers. Angry Jackson supporters accused Adams and Clay of making a corrupt bargain.
Which of the following was the immediate cause of the publication of the statement in this excerpt?
An increase in the tariff passed by Congress
While Calhoun and many other southerners disagreed with president Jackson's opposition to nullification, they agreed with him on
His opposition to the anti-slavery movement
Which of the following is or are most similar to the statement in the excerpt?
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
President Jackson's guiding principle to check "the injustices of government" was...
Which of the following groups provided the greatest support for Jackson's veto of the Bank?
President Jackson's veto of the Bank bill would contribute most significantly to...
A financial panic
Van Buren believed that the strength of the American economy was based on...
Farmers and planters
Which of the following individuals would be most critical of Van Buren's economic policy as presented in this excerpt?
The first free public education system in the United States began in which of the following colonies?
Which of these groups would most strongly agree with Stevens on his view of education?
Stevens disagrees with those who oppose free public education because...
It will result in increased taxes
Thoreau challenged the government because...
He opposed war in all cases
Thoreau believed that a just man should be prepared to do which of the following?
Go to jail for his beliefs
Which of the following groups held views most similar to the ideas expressed in this excerpt?
Sojourner Truth strongly rejects criticisms of women that are based on which of the following?
The teachings of religion
Sojourner Truth saw connection between the women's rights movement and...
The antislavery movement
Winthrop suggests that Polk's slogan of "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!" was based mainly on which of the following attitudes?
Polk hoped to get political benefit
Which of the following served as a major cause of the war with Mexico?
The annexation of Texas
President Polk accepted a compromise with Britain on the Oregon dispute because...
The United States was facing problems with Mexico
Which period was the peak of manifest destiny?
One attempt to prevent slavery in the territories was the...
By going to war, the United States gained the territory labeled as the...
The major opposition to the Mexican War was based on the belief that...
It would expand territory
President Polk was motivated to reject the treaty with Mexico because of which of the following?
Many Southerners wanted the United States to get larger gains in territory
Road to Civil War
-would allow popular sovereignty in kansas and nebraska
-this was a problem because they were both above the 36 30 missouri compromise line-overtuned missouri compromise
-helped create republican party: to help stop the spread of slavery
-dred scott v. sanford-african americans aren't citizens and slavery is constitutional
-Fugitive Slave Acr
-Lincoln becoming president in 1860
Road to Secession
Republicans did well in congressional elections, worried about antislavery platform as well as economic program favoring the north, high tariffs, believed the northern republic would interfere with their congressional rights
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.
Dred Scott vs. Sanford (1857)
the Supreme Court ruled that Americans of African descent, whether free or slave, were not American citizens and could not sue in federal court. The Court also ruled that Congress lacked power to ban slavery in the U.S. territories.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
To which politicians is Clay directing the last line of the excerpt?
Southerners who were threatening to secede
Which of the following parts of the Compromise of 1850 was the most appealing to the South?
Passing a new Fugitive Slave Law
Which of the following parts of the Compromise of 1850 was most appealing to the North?
Admitting California as a free state
Which of the following ideas is Douglas appealing to when he says "whether the people of the territories shall be allowed to do as they please upon the question of slavery"?
An increase in which of the following was the key part of the Kansas-Nebraska Act to attract Southern support?
Lincoln advocates the words of the Declaration of Independence; and, Lincoln accentuated the Civil War as not just a fight to preserve the Union, but to bring equality to "all" of its citizens: "...conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
The Black Codes were laws passed by southern states after the Civil War denying ex-slaves the complete civil rights enjoyed by whites and intended to force blacks back to plantations and impoverished lifestyles.
Andrew Johnson Presidency/Impeachment
Johnson was Lincoln's vice president; & President after the assassination. He was a Jacksonian Democrat; from Tennessee but after the seccesion from the Union he stayed in the Senate because his loyalty lay with the Union; a month after Lincoln's death he began his Reconstruction vision which offered amnesty to Southerners who promised to keep their allegiance to the Constitution, however the Southern elite were exempt from this because Johnson blamed them for seccession.
Andrew Johnson's impeachment was the result of Stanton's dismissal by the President, this was the last straw for the House Republicans. Johnson was just barely acquitted. As a result for the rest of his term he was powerless to alter the course of Reconstruction and the country.
The Presidential Reconstruction Plan was Johnson's plant to offer amnesty to all Southerners who took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution, except for the Southern elite class which he blamed for secession and ultimately the war; he appointed provisional leaders for the southern states. Within a few months the former states of the Confederacy had met the President's terms.
Which of the following political groups had its efforts to find a compromise over slavery effectively ended by Taney's decision in the Dred Scott Case?
Northerners were most upset by the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision because...
The decision allowed slavery in the territories
Which of the following acts of Congress was declared unconstitutional in the Dred Scott case?
Missouri Compromise of 1820
President Lincoln delayed issuing an Emancipation Proclamation because of his concern that it would...
Cause the border states to secede
To issue an Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln felt that he needed which of the following?
A military victory
A major part of the Confederate strategy for winning independence was based on...
Winning recognition and support from Great Britain
Which of the following describes a reason not mentioned by Strong in this excerpt that ultimately stopped Britain from recognizing the Confederacy?
Opposition from British working class
The Union was most disturbed because they believed that Britain was supporting the Confederates by doing which of the following?
In July of 1861, President Lincoln was particularly concerned about how his policies on slavery would affect which areas?
The states in white because they were slave states that remained in the Union
Which of the following statements best describes the states in the medium gray?
They included most of the country's population
Which of the following statements best describes the states in the dark gray?
They had a strong military tradition
Which of the following would in part cause Douglass's view that for African Americans, "citizenship is but a sham"?
Which best provides an example of how the "Constitution and its reighteous laws," accoding to Douglass, provide ope for the "colored people of this country"?
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Which of the following developed during Reconstruction to provide direct support and support self-determination for those freed from slvary?
In proclaiming that all persons born in the United States were citizens, the 14th Amendment directly repudiated which of the following?
The Dred Scott Decision
For future Supreme Courts, one of the key points of the 14th amendment would be which of the following?
:nor deny...equal protection of the laws"
Which of the following was most important in enabling the Democratic Party to regain political power in the South?
The victor in the 1876 presidential election was decided by...
A special electoral commission
Democrats agreed to accept Rutherford B. Hayes as president in 1876 in part if he agreed to which of the following?
To promote Southern industrial development
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