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ascorbic acid

A food additive that prevents color and flavor loss.


Method of commercial food preservation in which water vapor is removed from frozen foods.


Process of subjecting foods to extremely low temperatures for a short time.

aseptic packaging

Commercial packaging method in which a food and its packaging material are sterilized separately.

retort packaging

Commercial packaging method in which food is sealed in a foil pouch.


A food preservation process that involves sealing food in airtight containers.

shelf life

The amount of time a food can be stored and remain wholesome.


Space between the food and the closure of a canning jar.

one-wall kitchen

A kitchen floor plan in which all the appliances and cabinets are located along a single wall.

U-shaped kitchen

Floor plan in which all the appliances and cabinets are arranged in a continuous line along three adjoining walls.

L-shaped kitchen

Floor plan in which appliances and cabinets are arranged along two adjoining walls.

peninsula kitchen

Floor plan in which a counter extending into the room can be used for storage or as an eating area.

corridor kitchen

Floor plan in which appliances and cabinets are arranged on two nonadjoining walls.

island kitchen

Floor plan in which a counter stands alone in the center of the room.


To connect an appliance electrically with the earth.

universal design

Features of rooms, furnishings, and equipment that are usable by as many people as possible.

natural light

Light that comes from the sun.

artificial light

Light that most often comes from electrical fixtures.

work triangle

Imaginary line connecting the focal points of the three major work centers found in a kitchen.

work center

Section in a kitchen that has been designed around a specific activity.


chemicals used to kill pests during plant growth; can cause food contamination.


an undersirable substance that unintentionally gets into food.


protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm.

convenience foods

food products that have had some amount of service added to it.

food additive

a substance added to food products that cause desired changes in the products.


the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems.


using nutrient-enriched water to grow plants without soil.

electric can opener

May sharpen knives in addition to its primary function.


May be percolator or automatic drip type.

bread machine

Can be used to prepare dough for pizza, rolls, and other yeast products.

electric skillet

Has a thermostat to control the temperature used for frying, roasting, pan broiling, stewing, and simmering.


Does not incorporate air into foods, but it can be used to blend milk shakes and puree soup.

toaster oven

Used to bake and broil small food items in addition to browning bread.

electric mixer

Available in both stand and handheld styles.

food processor

A safety interlock switch ensures the cover of this appliance is locked in place before operation.

wave pattern

The repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube.


High-frequency energy wave used in microwave ovens to cook foods quickly.

combination oven

An oven that can do two types of cooking.

convection cooking

Method of cooking in which foods are baked or roasted in a stream of heated air.


A seller's promise that a product will perform as specified or will be free from defects.


Type of commercial food preservation exposes food to low-level doses of gamma rays, electron beams, or X rays.

service contract

An insurance policy for major appliances that can be bought from an appliance dealer.

drop-in range

A range that fits between two cabinets and sits on a cabinet base.

automatic settings

Microwave oven feature that allows the oven to determine correct cooking times and power levels.

downdraft vent

Special range feature that eliminates the need for an overhead hood.


The most common and energy-efficient style of refrigerator.


the passage of nutrients form the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells.

Amino acid

one of the building blocks of protein molecules.


a desire to eat.


a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body. In science it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius.

Deficiency disease

a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body. Examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter, kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis.

Diabetes Mellitus

lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream.


the process by which the body breaks down food into useable nutrients.


a mistaken belief.

Fat soluble vitamin

vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fat; includes vitamins A, D, E. and K.


type of simple sugar; the body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system. The basic sugar molecule from which all other carbohydrates are built.


poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by an inadequate diet, or the body's inability to use the nutrients it takes in.


the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities.


chemical substances in food that help to maintain the body.


the study of nutrients and how they are used to by the body.


- weighing twenty percent or more above ideal weight for height. In an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more.


a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss in bone density.

REA's (Recommended Dietary Allowances)

suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the needs of most healthy people.


a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow.

Taste buds

sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue.

Trace elements

elements or minerals needed in very small amounts.


nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes.

Water soluble vitamins

a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B Complex vitamins, that dissolves in water. They are not stored in the body.


someone who owns a business in which food and beverages are prepared for small and large parties, banquets, weddings, and other large gatherings.


an orderly program for spending, saving, and investing the money you earn to achieve desired goals; also called a financial plan or spending plan.


protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm.

Consumer advocate

someone who acts or intercedes on the behalf of another who buys goods or services.


a health care professional who has training in nutrition and diet planning.


a person who owns and runs his or her own business.

FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

an agency in charge of ensuring the safety of all foods sold except meat, poultry, and seafood.

Food Scientist

experts who work with the sources of nutrients for living things.

Meal manager

someone who controls and directs resources to get a meal prepared efficiently and on time; could also be called a food service manager.


fitting tasks together to make the best use of time; doing two tasks at the same time.

Nutrition labeling

an analysis of a food product's contributions to an average diet that appears on the product packaging.

Open dating

a system of putting dates on perishable and semi-perishable foods to help consumers obtain products that are fresh and wholesome.


thinking about how packaging materials can be reused or recycled before buying a product.

Pre preparation

any step done in advance to save time when getting a meal ready.

Semi prepared foods

a convenience food that still requires some preparation before being served.

USDA (US Department of Agriculture)

an agency that monitors the safety and quality of poultry, eggs, and meat products.

Work simplification

doing a job in the easiest, simplest, and quickest way possible


single celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals.


the process of preserving food by heating and sealing it in airtight containers for storage.

Cross contamination

the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to another food.

Food borne illness

a disease transmitted by food.

Heimlich maneuver

procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person's airway.


a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms.


the condition of being secure from threat of danger, harm or loss.


maintaining a clean condition in order to promote hygiene and prevent disease.

Temperature danger zone

zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth.

A la carte

food offered with a separate price for each food item on the menu.

A la mode

topped with ice cream.


light food or beverage that begins a meal and is designed to stimulate the appetite.

Au jus

serving food with the pan drippings from which the fat has been skimmed.


glasses of many shapes and sizes used for a variety of purposes.

Blue plate service

a type of meal service in which the plates are filled in the kitchen, carried to the dining room, and served.

Buffet service

style of meal service in which a large table or buffet holds a variety of food items, the serving dishes and utensils, dinnerware, flatware, and napkins and from which guests serve themselves.

Compromise service

a combination of English and formal service. The main course of the meal is served at the table by the host and the remainder of the meal is served in individual portions from the kitchen.


the arrangement of the tableware that each diner will need for a meal; also called a place setting.

Dutch treat

an arrangement of paying in which each person pays his own way.

English service

a style of meal service in which the plates are served by the host and/or hostess and passed around the table until each guest has been served.


the main course of a meal.


manners established by society.

Family service

a service style that allows diners to join others in a setting where large dishes of food are placed on a table for self-service.

Formal service

when you are served with porcelain or fine china.


money charged or left as a tip for service.


tableware, such as bowls, tureens, and pitchers, used to serve food and liquids.

Open stock

tableware that can be purchased as individual pieces.


an arrangement with a restaurant to hold a table or with a hotel to hold a room, for a guest on a given date at a given time.


glassware with three distinct parts a bowl, a stem, and a base.

Table appointments

all the items needed at the table to serve and eat a meal.

Table linens

tablecloths, placemats and napkins.


plates, cups, saucers, and bowls.


cook in the oven in dry heat without a cover.


to cook by broiling, grilling, roasting, or baking. Traditionally to cook meat on a rack over hot coals.


to spoon pan liquids over the surface of food during cooking to keep the food moist and add flavor.


a flour and liquid mixture with a consistency ranging from a thin liquid to a stiff liquid depending on the proportion of dry to liquid ingredients.


mix or stir quickly, bringing the contents of bowl to the top and down again.


to briefly immerse food in boiling water or steam.


to mix ingredients until thoroughly combined.


to heat a liquid until bubbles rise to the surface, a method of cooking food in a boiling liquid.


a long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food.


to coat a food item with crumbs and egg.


a dry cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a primary heat source.


to turn the surface of a food brown by quickly cooking it in hot fat or placing it under a broiler.


to apply sauce, melted fat, or other liquid with a basting or pastry brush.


to cook in sugar syrup until coated or crystallized.


the chemical browning reaction that can occur when a sugar is heated. A characteristic color and flavor develops.


- to make a food cold by placing it in a refrigerator or in a bowl over crushed ice.


to cut into small pieces.


to thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or a dry mix


- to cook or simmer slowly just below the boiling point.


to remove the center part or stem of a fruit or vegetable leaving a hole.


to blend until smooth and fluffy.


to cut into small squares of equal size.


to divide into parts with a sharp utensil.

Cut in

to combine solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain. May be done using a pastry blender, two knives, or a fork.

Deep fry

to cook in a large amount of hot fat.


to cut into very small cubes of even size.


to cause a solid to turn into or become part of a liquid.


to place small pieces of something, usually a fat, over the surface of a food.


to remove the liquid.


to coat a food by sprinkling it with or dipping it in a dry ingredient such as flour or breadcrumbs.


to trim and clean, commonly associated with poultry and fish.


to lightly sprinkle the surface of a food with sugar, flour or breadcrumbs.

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