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AR Food and Nutrition EOC Review

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ascorbic acid
A food additive that prevents color and flavor loss.
freeze-drying
Method of commercial food preservation in which water vapor is removed from frozen foods.
quick-freezing
Process of subjecting foods to extremely low temperatures for a short time.
aseptic packaging
Commercial packaging method in which a food and its packaging material are sterilized separately.
retort packaging
Commercial packaging method in which food is sealed in a foil pouch.
canning
A food preservation process that involves sealing food in airtight containers.
shelf life
The amount of time a food can be stored and remain wholesome.
headspace
Space between the food and the closure of a canning jar.
one-wall kitchen
A kitchen floor plan in which all the appliances and cabinets are located along a single wall.
U-shaped kitchen
Floor plan in which all the appliances and cabinets are arranged in a continuous line along three adjoining walls.
L-shaped kitchen
Floor plan in which appliances and cabinets are arranged along two adjoining walls.
peninsula kitchen
Floor plan in which a counter extending into the room can be used for storage or as an eating area.
corridor kitchen
Floor plan in which appliances and cabinets are arranged on two nonadjoining walls.
island kitchen
Floor plan in which a counter stands alone in the center of the room.
ground
To connect an appliance electrically with the earth.
universal design
Features of rooms, furnishings, and equipment that are usable by as many people as possible.
natural light
Light that comes from the sun.
artificial light
Light that most often comes from electrical fixtures.
work triangle
Imaginary line connecting the focal points of the three major work centers found in a kitchen.
work center
Section in a kitchen that has been designed around a specific activity.
pesticides
chemicals used to kill pests during plant growth; can cause food contamination.
contaminant
an undersirable substance that unintentionally gets into food.
conservation
protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm.
convenience foods
food products that have had some amount of service added to it.
food additive
a substance added to food products that cause desired changes in the products.
technology
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems.
hydroponics
using nutrient-enriched water to grow plants without soil.
electric can opener
May sharpen knives in addition to its primary function.
coffeemaker
May be percolator or automatic drip type.
bread machine
Can be used to prepare dough for pizza, rolls, and other yeast products.
electric skillet
Has a thermostat to control the temperature used for frying, roasting, pan broiling, stewing, and simmering.
blender
Does not incorporate air into foods, but it can be used to blend milk shakes and puree soup.
toaster oven
Used to bake and broil small food items in addition to browning bread.
electric mixer
Available in both stand and handheld styles.
food processor
A safety interlock switch ensures the cover of this appliance is locked in place before operation.
wave pattern
The repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube.
microwave
High-frequency energy wave used in microwave ovens to cook foods quickly.
combination oven
An oven that can do two types of cooking.
convection cooking
Method of cooking in which foods are baked or roasted in a stream of heated air.
warranty
A seller's promise that a product will perform as specified or will be free from defects.
Irradiation
Type of commercial food preservation exposes food to low-level doses of gamma rays, electron beams, or X rays.
service contract
An insurance policy for major appliances that can be bought from an appliance dealer.
drop-in range
A range that fits between two cabinets and sits on a cabinet base.
automatic settings
Microwave oven feature that allows the oven to determine correct cooking times and power levels.
downdraft vent
Special range feature that eliminates the need for an overhead hood.
Top-mount
The most common and energy-efficient style of refrigerator.
Absorption
the passage of nutrients form the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells.
Amino acid
one of the building blocks of protein molecules.
Appetite
a desire to eat.
Calorie
a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body. In science it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius.
Deficiency disease
a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body. Examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter, kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis.
Diabetes Mellitus
lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream.
Digestion
the process by which the body breaks down food into useable nutrients.
Fallacy
a mistaken belief.
Fat soluble vitamin
vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fat; includes vitamins A, D, E. and K.
Glucose
type of simple sugar; the body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system. The basic sugar molecule from which all other carbohydrates are built.
Malnutrition
poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by an inadequate diet, or the body's inability to use the nutrients it takes in.
Metabolism
the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities.
Nutrient
chemical substances in food that help to maintain the body.
Nutrition
the study of nutrients and how they are used to by the body.
Obesity
- weighing twenty percent or more above ideal weight for height. In an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more.
Osteoporosis
a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss in bone density.
REA's (Recommended Dietary Allowances)
suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the needs of most healthy people.
Saliva
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow.
Taste buds
sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue.
Trace elements
elements or minerals needed in very small amounts.
Vitamin
nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes.
Water soluble vitamins
a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B Complex vitamins, that dissolves in water. They are not stored in the body.
Caterer
someone who owns a business in which food and beverages are prepared for small and large parties, banquets, weddings, and other large gatherings.
Budget
an orderly program for spending, saving, and investing the money you earn to achieve desired goals; also called a financial plan or spending plan.
Conservation
protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm.
Consumer advocate
someone who acts or intercedes on the behalf of another who buys goods or services.
Dietician
a health care professional who has training in nutrition and diet planning.
Entrepreneur
a person who owns and runs his or her own business.
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
an agency in charge of ensuring the safety of all foods sold except meat, poultry, and seafood.
Food Scientist
experts who work with the sources of nutrients for living things.
Meal manager
someone who controls and directs resources to get a meal prepared efficiently and on time; could also be called a food service manager.
Multitasking
fitting tasks together to make the best use of time; doing two tasks at the same time.
Nutrition labeling
an analysis of a food product's contributions to an average diet that appears on the product packaging.
Open dating
a system of putting dates on perishable and semi-perishable foods to help consumers obtain products that are fresh and wholesome.
Precycling
thinking about how packaging materials can be reused or recycled before buying a product.
Pre preparation
any step done in advance to save time when getting a meal ready.
Semi prepared foods
a convenience food that still requires some preparation before being served.
USDA (US Department of Agriculture)
an agency that monitors the safety and quality of poultry, eggs, and meat products.
Work simplification
doing a job in the easiest, simplest, and quickest way possible
Bacteria
single celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals.
Canning
the process of preserving food by heating and sealing it in airtight containers for storage.
Cross contamination
the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to another food.
Food borne illness
a disease transmitted by food.
Heimlich maneuver
procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person's airway.
Irradiation
a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms.
Safety
the condition of being secure from threat of danger, harm or loss.
Sanitation
maintaining a clean condition in order to promote hygiene and prevent disease.
Temperature danger zone
zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth.
A la carte
food offered with a separate price for each food item on the menu.
A la mode
topped with ice cream.
Appetizer
light food or beverage that begins a meal and is designed to stimulate the appetite.
Au jus
serving food with the pan drippings from which the fat has been skimmed.
Beverageware
glasses of many shapes and sizes used for a variety of purposes.
Blue plate service
a type of meal service in which the plates are filled in the kitchen, carried to the dining room, and served.
Buffet service
style of meal service in which a large table or buffet holds a variety of food items, the serving dishes and utensils, dinnerware, flatware, and napkins and from which guests serve themselves.
Compromise service
a combination of English and formal service. The main course of the meal is served at the table by the host and the remainder of the meal is served in individual portions from the kitchen.
Cover
the arrangement of the tableware that each diner will need for a meal; also called a place setting.
Dutch treat
an arrangement of paying in which each person pays his own way.
English service
a style of meal service in which the plates are served by the host and/or hostess and passed around the table until each guest has been served.
Entrée
the main course of a meal.
Etiquette
manners established by society.
Family service
a service style that allows diners to join others in a setting where large dishes of food are placed on a table for self-service.
Formal service
when you are served with porcelain or fine china.
Gratuity
money charged or left as a tip for service.
Hollowware
tableware, such as bowls, tureens, and pitchers, used to serve food and liquids.
Open stock
tableware that can be purchased as individual pieces.
Reservation
an arrangement with a restaurant to hold a table or with a hotel to hold a room, for a guest on a given date at a given time.
Stemware
glassware with three distinct parts a bowl, a stem, and a base.
Table appointments
all the items needed at the table to serve and eat a meal.
Table linens
tablecloths, placemats and napkins.
Dinnerware
plates, cups, saucers, and bowls.
Bake
cook in the oven in dry heat without a cover.
Barbecue
to cook by broiling, grilling, roasting, or baking. Traditionally to cook meat on a rack over hot coals.
Baste
to spoon pan liquids over the surface of food during cooking to keep the food moist and add flavor.
Batter
a flour and liquid mixture with a consistency ranging from a thin liquid to a stiff liquid depending on the proportion of dry to liquid ingredients.
Beat
mix or stir quickly, bringing the contents of bowl to the top and down again.
Blanch
to briefly immerse food in boiling water or steam.
Blend
to mix ingredients until thoroughly combined.
Boil
to heat a liquid until bubbles rise to the surface, a method of cooking food in a boiling liquid.
Braise
a long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food.
Bread
to coat a food item with crumbs and egg.
Broil
a dry cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a primary heat source.
Brown
to turn the surface of a food brown by quickly cooking it in hot fat or placing it under a broiler.
Brush
to apply sauce, melted fat, or other liquid with a basting or pastry brush.
Candy
to cook in sugar syrup until coated or crystallized.
Caramelization
the chemical browning reaction that can occur when a sugar is heated. A characteristic color and flavor develops.
Chill
- to make a food cold by placing it in a refrigerator or in a bowl over crushed ice.
Chop
to cut into small pieces.
Coat
to thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or a dry mix
Coddle
- to cook or simmer slowly just below the boiling point.
Core
to remove the center part or stem of a fruit or vegetable leaving a hole.
Cream
to blend until smooth and fluffy.
Cube
to cut into small squares of equal size.
Cut
to divide into parts with a sharp utensil.
Cut in
to combine solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain. May be done using a pastry blender, two knives, or a fork.
Deep fry
to cook in a large amount of hot fat.
Dice
to cut into very small cubes of even size.
Dissolve
to cause a solid to turn into or become part of a liquid.
Dot
to place small pieces of something, usually a fat, over the surface of a food.
Drain
to remove the liquid.
Dredge
to coat a food by sprinkling it with or dipping it in a dry ingredient such as flour or breadcrumbs.
Dress
to trim and clean, commonly associated with poultry and fish.
Dust
to lightly sprinkle the surface of a food with sugar, flour or breadcrumbs.
Equivalent
the same amount expressed in different ways by using different units of measure.
Flake
to break fish into small pieces with a fork.
Flour
to sprinkle or coat with flour.
Flute
a manner of decorating crust by making uniform folds, groves or twists in the crust, such as around the edge of a pie.
Fold
to add ingredients carefully as not to lose air bubbles. The utensil is passed down through the mixture, across the bottom, and up the opposite side of the bowl, gently turning the mixture over.
Fry
to cook in hot fat.
Garnish
decorative, edible items added to enhance the appearance of the main food item.
Glaze
to coat a food item with a liquid, usually a syrup, to produce a shiny covering.
Grate
to shred food into coarse pieces by rubbing it on the teeth of a utensil or rough surface
Grease
to coat food or utensils with a layer of oil or shortening.
Grilling
a method of short order cooking on a griddle.
Grind
to mechanically break down a food into a finer texture.
Hull
to remove the outer covering of a fruit or vegetable; particularly used in reference to bean and peas.
Julienne
to cut into long narrow strips.
Knead
a mixing process in which dough is folded, pressed, and squeezed to strengthen the gluten strands and allow yeast dough to develop the proper texture.
Marinate
to soak foods in a liquid to improve texture or flavor. The liquid generally contains herbs, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, as well as oil, and an acid, such as wine, vinegar, or lemon juice to break down the connective tissue of meat.
Mash
to break a food by pressing it with the back of a spoon, a masher, or forcing it through a ricer.
Melt
to change from a solid to a liquid through the application of heat.
Mince
to cut into very fine pieces.
Mix
to combine two or more ingredients into one mass.
Mold
to shape by hand or by pouring into a form to achieve a desired structure.
Pan-broil
to cook without fat in an uncovered skillet without grease and pouring off excess fat as it accumulates.
Panfry
a method of cooking in which a moderate amount of fat is heated in a pan before adding food.
Parboil
to boil briefly as a preliminary or incomplete cooking procedure.
Pare
to remove the stem and outer covering of a vegetable or fruit with a paring knife or peeler.
Peel
to remove the outer layer of a food.
Pit
to remove the seed of a fruit or vegetable.
Poach
to cook in a small amount of simmering liquid.
Preheat
to heat the oven to the correct temperature before putting in the food.
Puree
to put food through a fine sieve or a food mill to form a thick and smooth liquid.
Quarter
to cut into four equal pieces.
Recipe
detailed instructions for preparing particular foods.
Reconstitue
to return to a previous state by adding water, also called rehydration.
Reduce
to decrease the quantity of a liquid and intensify the flavor by boiling.
Roast
to cook uncovered in the oven with dry heat.
Roll
to shape into a round mass, to flatten dough to an even thickness with a rolling pin.
Saute
to cook food in a small amount of fat, stirring or flipping it frequently.
Scald
to heat a liquid to just below the boiling point; to dip food into boiling water or pour boiling water the food.
Scallop
to cover with a sauce and bake.
Score
to make small, shallow cuts on the surface of a food.
Season
to add herbs, spices or other ingredients to a food to increase flavor.
Section
to separate into parts.
Shape
to form or create a desired appearance.
Shell
to remove from an outer covering.
Shred
to cut or tear into thin pieces.
Sift
to put a dry ingredient through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps.
Simmer
a moist cooking technique in which food is cooked slowly and steadily in a liquid just below the boiling point (185 degrees 200 degrees F.).
Skim
to remove a substance from the surface of a liquid.
Slice
to cut into thin, flat pieces.
Sliver
to cut into long slender pieces.
Snip
to cut into small bits with kitchen shears.
Sprinkle
to scatter small amounts of an ingredient over another food. Such as a liquid, crumbs, or spices.
Steam
to cook with vapor produced by a boiling liquid without allowing it to come in contact with the water.
Steep
to cover with boiling water and let stand without additional heating until flavor and color is extracted as for tea.
Sterilize
to make free from living microorganisms, as bacteria, or their viable spores.
Stew
to cook one food or several foods together in a seasoned liquid for a long period of time.
Stir
move the ingredients in a circular motion to mix or prevent burning.
Stir fry
a dry cooking technique, foods cook quickly in a small amount of fat over high heat while stirring constantly. Generally uses a wok, a large pan with sloping sides.
Strain
to separate solids from a liquid.
Toast
to make the surface of a food brown by applying direct heat.
Toss
to mix lightly with a rising and falling action.
Truss
to prepare fowl for cooking by binding the wings and legs with string or skewers.
Unmold
to remove from a form or mold pan.
Whip
to beat rapidly usually with a whisk to increase volume and incorporate air.
Yield
the number of servings, or portions, that a recipe produces.
Teaspoon abbreviations
t or tsp
Cup abbreviations
c or C
Tablespoon abbreviations
T or tbsp
Pint abbreviation
pt
Quart abbreviation
qt
Gallon abbreviation
gal
Ounce abbreviation
oz
Pound abbreviations
lb or #
1 Tablespoon equals
3 tsp
4 Tablespoons equals
1/4 cup
2 cups equal
1 pint
2 pints equal
1 quart
4 quarts equal
1 gallon
8 ounces equals
1 cup
16 ounces equals
1 pound