AR Food and Nutrition EOC Review

ascorbic acid
A food additive that prevents color and flavor loss.
Method of commercial food preservation in which water vapor is removed from frozen foods.
Process of subjecting foods to extremely low temperatures for a short time.
aseptic packaging
Commercial packaging method in which a food and its packaging material are sterilized separately.
retort packaging
Commercial packaging method in which food is sealed in a foil pouch.
A food preservation process that involves sealing food in airtight containers.
shelf life
The amount of time a food can be stored and remain wholesome.
Space between the food and the closure of a canning jar.
one-wall kitchen
A kitchen floor plan in which all the appliances and cabinets are located along a single wall.
U-shaped kitchen
Floor plan in which all the appliances and cabinets are arranged in a continuous line along three adjoining walls.
L-shaped kitchen
Floor plan in which appliances and cabinets are arranged along two adjoining walls.
peninsula kitchen
Floor plan in which a counter extending into the room can be used for storage or as an eating area.
corridor kitchen
Floor plan in which appliances and cabinets are arranged on two nonadjoining walls.
island kitchen
Floor plan in which a counter stands alone in the center of the room.
To connect an appliance electrically with the earth.
universal design
Features of rooms, furnishings, and equipment that are usable by as many people as possible.
natural light
Light that comes from the sun.
artificial light
Light that most often comes from electrical fixtures.
work triangle
Imaginary line connecting the focal points of the three major work centers found in a kitchen.
work center
Section in a kitchen that has been designed around a specific activity.
chemicals used to kill pests during plant growth; can cause food contamination.
an undersirable substance that unintentionally gets into food.
protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm.
convenience foods
food products that have had some amount of service added to it.
food additive
a substance added to food products that cause desired changes in the products.
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems.
using nutrient-enriched water to grow plants without soil.
electric can opener
May sharpen knives in addition to its primary function.
May be percolator or automatic drip type.
bread machine
Can be used to prepare dough for pizza, rolls, and other yeast products.
electric skillet
Has a thermostat to control the temperature used for frying, roasting, pan broiling, stewing, and simmering.
Does not incorporate air into foods, but it can be used to blend milk shakes and puree soup.
toaster oven
Used to bake and broil small food items in addition to browning bread.
electric mixer
Available in both stand and handheld styles.
food processor
A safety interlock switch ensures the cover of this appliance is locked in place before operation.
wave pattern
The repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube.
High-frequency energy wave used in microwave ovens to cook foods quickly.
combination oven
An oven that can do two types of cooking.
convection cooking
Method of cooking in which foods are baked or roasted in a stream of heated air.
A seller's promise that a product will perform as specified or will be free from defects.
Type of commercial food preservation exposes food to low-level doses of gamma rays, electron beams, or X rays.
service contract
An insurance policy for major appliances that can be bought from an appliance dealer.
drop-in range
A range that fits between two cabinets and sits on a cabinet base.
automatic settings
Microwave oven feature that allows the oven to determine correct cooking times and power levels.
downdraft vent
Special range feature that eliminates the need for an overhead hood.
The most common and energy-efficient style of refrigerator.
the passage of nutrients form the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells.
Amino acid
one of the building blocks of protein molecules.
a desire to eat.
a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body. In science it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius.
Deficiency disease
a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body. Examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter, kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis.
Diabetes Mellitus
lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream.
the process by which the body breaks down food into useable nutrients.
a mistaken belief.
Fat soluble vitamin
vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fat; includes vitamins A, D, E. and K.
type of simple sugar; the body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system. The basic sugar molecule from which all other carbohydrates are built.
poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by an inadequate diet, or the body's inability to use the nutrients it takes in.
the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities.
chemical substances in food that help to maintain the body.
the study of nutrients and how they are used to by the body.
- weighing twenty percent or more above ideal weight for height. In an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more.
a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss in bone density.
REA's (Recommended Dietary Allowances)
suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the needs of most healthy people.
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow.
Taste buds
sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue.
Trace elements
elements or minerals needed in very small amounts.
nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes.
Water soluble vitamins
a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B Complex vitamins, that dissolves in water. They are not stored in the body.
someone who owns a business in which food and beverages are prepared for small and large parties, banquets, weddings, and other large gatherings.
an orderly program for spending, saving, and investing the money you earn to achieve desired goals; also called a financial plan or spending plan.
protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm.
Consumer advocate
someone who acts or intercedes on the behalf of another who buys goods or services.
a health care professional who has training in nutrition and diet planning.
a person who owns and runs his or her own business.
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
an agency in charge of ensuring the safety of all foods sold except meat, poultry, and seafood.
Food Scientist
experts who work with the sources of nutrients for living things.
Meal manager
someone who controls and directs resources to get a meal prepared efficiently and on time; could also be called a food service manager.
fitting tasks together to make the best use of time; doing two tasks at the same time.
Nutrition labeling
an analysis of a food product's contributions to an average diet that appears on the product packaging.
Open dating
a system of putting dates on perishable and semi-perishable foods to help consumers obtain products that are fresh and wholesome.
thinking about how packaging materials can be reused or recycled before buying a product.
Pre preparation
any step done in advance to save time when getting a meal ready.
Semi prepared foods
a convenience food that still requires some preparation before being served.
USDA (US Department of Agriculture)
an agency that monitors the safety and quality of poultry, eggs, and meat products.
Work simplification
doing a job in the easiest, simplest, and quickest way possible
single celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals.
the process of preserving food by heating and sealing it in airtight containers for storage.
Cross contamination
the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to another food.
Food borne illness
a disease transmitted by food.
Heimlich maneuver
procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person's airway.
a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms.
the condition of being secure from threat of danger, harm or loss.
maintaining a clean condition in order to promote hygiene and prevent disease.
Temperature danger zone
zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth.
A la carte
food offered with a separate price for each food item on the menu.
A la mode
topped with ice cream.
light food or beverage that begins a meal and is designed to stimulate the appetite.
Au jus
serving food with the pan drippings from which the fat has been skimmed.
glasses of many shapes and sizes used for a variety of purposes.
Blue plate service
a type of meal service in which the plates are filled in the kitchen, carried to the dining room, and served.
Buffet service
style of meal service in which a large table or buffet holds a variety of food items, the serving dishes and utensils, dinnerware, flatware, and napkins and from which guests serve themselves.
Compromise service
a combination of English and formal service. The main course of the meal is served at the table by the host and the remainder of the meal is served in individual portions from the kitchen.
the arrangement of the tableware that each diner will need for a meal; also called a place setting.
Dutch treat
an arrangement of paying in which each person pays his own way.
English service
a style of meal service in which the plates are served by the host and/or hostess and passed around the table until each guest has been served.
the main course of a meal.
manners established by society.
Family service
a service style that allows diners to join others in a setting where large dishes of food are placed on a table for self-service.
Formal service
when you are served with porcelain or fine china.
money charged or left as a tip for service.
tableware, such as bowls, tureens, and pitchers, used to serve food and liquids.
Open stock
tableware that can be purchased as individual pieces.
an arrangement with a restaurant to hold a table or with a hotel to hold a room, for a guest on a given date at a given time.
glassware with three distinct parts a bowl, a stem, and a base.
Table appointments
all the items needed at the table to serve and eat a meal.
Table linens
tablecloths, placemats and napkins.
plates, cups, saucers, and bowls.
cook in the oven in dry heat without a cover.
to cook by broiling, grilling, roasting, or baking. Traditionally to cook meat on a rack over hot coals.
to spoon pan liquids over the surface of food during cooking to keep the food moist and add flavor.
a flour and liquid mixture with a consistency ranging from a thin liquid to a stiff liquid depending on the proportion of dry to liquid ingredients.
mix or stir quickly, bringing the contents of bowl to the top and down again.
to briefly immerse food in boiling water or steam.
to mix ingredients until thoroughly combined.
to heat a liquid until bubbles rise to the surface, a method of cooking food in a boiling liquid.
a long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food.
to coat a food item with crumbs and egg.
a dry cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a primary heat source.
to turn the surface of a food brown by quickly cooking it in hot fat or placing it under a broiler.
to apply sauce, melted fat, or other liquid with a basting or pastry brush.
to cook in sugar syrup until coated or crystallized.
the chemical browning reaction that can occur when a sugar is heated. A characteristic color and flavor develops.
- to make a food cold by placing it in a refrigerator or in a bowl over crushed ice.
to cut into small pieces.
to thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or a dry mix
- to cook or simmer slowly just below the boiling point.
to remove the center part or stem of a fruit or vegetable leaving a hole.
to blend until smooth and fluffy.
to cut into small squares of equal size.
to divide into parts with a sharp utensil.
Cut in
to combine solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain. May be done using a pastry blender, two knives, or a fork.
Deep fry
to cook in a large amount of hot fat.
to cut into very small cubes of even size.
to cause a solid to turn into or become part of a liquid.
to place small pieces of something, usually a fat, over the surface of a food.
to remove the liquid.
to coat a food by sprinkling it with or dipping it in a dry ingredient such as flour or breadcrumbs.
to trim and clean, commonly associated with poultry and fish.
to lightly sprinkle the surface of a food with sugar, flour or breadcrumbs.
the same amount expressed in different ways by using different units of measure.
to break fish into small pieces with a fork.
to sprinkle or coat with flour.
a manner of decorating crust by making uniform folds, groves or twists in the crust, such as around the edge of a pie.
to add ingredients carefully as not to lose air bubbles. The utensil is passed down through the mixture, across the bottom, and up the opposite side of the bowl, gently turning the mixture over.
to cook in hot fat.
decorative, edible items added to enhance the appearance of the main food item.
to coat a food item with a liquid, usually a syrup, to produce a shiny covering.
to shred food into coarse pieces by rubbing it on the teeth of a utensil or rough surface
to coat food or utensils with a layer of oil or shortening.
a method of short order cooking on a griddle.
to mechanically break down a food into a finer texture.
to remove the outer covering of a fruit or vegetable; particularly used in reference to bean and peas.
to cut into long narrow strips.
a mixing process in which dough is folded, pressed, and squeezed to strengthen the gluten strands and allow yeast dough to develop the proper texture.
to soak foods in a liquid to improve texture or flavor. The liquid generally contains herbs, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, as well as oil, and an acid, such as wine, vinegar, or lemon juice to break down the connective tissue of meat.
to break a food by pressing it with the back of a spoon, a masher, or forcing it through a ricer.
to change from a solid to a liquid through the application of heat.
to cut into very fine pieces.
to combine two or more ingredients into one mass.
to shape by hand or by pouring into a form to achieve a desired structure.
to cook without fat in an uncovered skillet without grease and pouring off excess fat as it accumulates.
a method of cooking in which a moderate amount of fat is heated in a pan before adding food.
to boil briefly as a preliminary or incomplete cooking procedure.
to remove the stem and outer covering of a vegetable or fruit with a paring knife or peeler.
to remove the outer layer of a food.
to remove the seed of a fruit or vegetable.
to cook in a small amount of simmering liquid.
to heat the oven to the correct temperature before putting in the food.
to put food through a fine sieve or a food mill to form a thick and smooth liquid.
to cut into four equal pieces.
detailed instructions for preparing particular foods.
to return to a previous state by adding water, also called rehydration.
to decrease the quantity of a liquid and intensify the flavor by boiling.
to cook uncovered in the oven with dry heat.
to shape into a round mass, to flatten dough to an even thickness with a rolling pin.
to cook food in a small amount of fat, stirring or flipping it frequently.
to heat a liquid to just below the boiling point; to dip food into boiling water or pour boiling water the food.
to cover with a sauce and bake.
to make small, shallow cuts on the surface of a food.
to add herbs, spices or other ingredients to a food to increase flavor.
to separate into parts.
to form or create a desired appearance.
to remove from an outer covering.
to cut or tear into thin pieces.
to put a dry ingredient through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps.
a moist cooking technique in which food is cooked slowly and steadily in a liquid just below the boiling point (185 degrees 200 degrees F.).
to remove a substance from the surface of a liquid.
to cut into thin, flat pieces.
to cut into long slender pieces.
to cut into small bits with kitchen shears.
to scatter small amounts of an ingredient over another food. Such as a liquid, crumbs, or spices.
to cook with vapor produced by a boiling liquid without allowing it to come in contact with the water.
to cover with boiling water and let stand without additional heating until flavor and color is extracted as for tea.
to make free from living microorganisms, as bacteria, or their viable spores.
to cook one food or several foods together in a seasoned liquid for a long period of time.
move the ingredients in a circular motion to mix or prevent burning.
Stir fry
a dry cooking technique, foods cook quickly in a small amount of fat over high heat while stirring constantly. Generally uses a wok, a large pan with sloping sides.
to separate solids from a liquid.
to make the surface of a food brown by applying direct heat.
to mix lightly with a rising and falling action.
to prepare fowl for cooking by binding the wings and legs with string or skewers.
to remove from a form or mold pan.
to beat rapidly usually with a whisk to increase volume and incorporate air.
the number of servings, or portions, that a recipe produces.
Teaspoon abbreviations
t or tsp
Cup abbreviations
c or C
Tablespoon abbreviations
T or tbsp
Pint abbreviation
Quart abbreviation
Gallon abbreviation
Ounce abbreviation
Pound abbreviations
lb or #
1 Tablespoon equals
3 tsp
4 Tablespoons equals
1/4 cup
2 cups equal
1 pint
2 pints equal
1 quart
4 quarts equal
1 gallon
8 ounces equals
1 cup
16 ounces equals
1 pound