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Terms in this set (74)
A process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions.
The smallest unit of matter that still remains the properties of an element.
What are atoms made of?
Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
What is the difference between a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and prokaryotic cells do not.
Where is the DNA located in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
In eukaryotic cells: the nucleus ; prokaryotic cells: the cytoplasm
small organs found inside a cell. They carry out specific functions in the cell
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction; control center of the cell
Membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell; protects the cell and allows certain substances to pass through
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Everything inside a cell except the nucleus
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
In BOTH types of cells. Carries substances, like proteins, to various parts of the cell.
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Uses chemicals to break down food and worn out cell parts
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
What organelles to plant cells have that animal cells do not?
Chloroplasts, vacuoles, and the cell wall
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water
contains less solute concentration than the cell; water will tend to enter the cell and swell it
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
the adaptation of an organism or organ to a special function or environment
Why does a cell need to divide when it grows?
So the inside can get food and oxygen; if it keeps getting bigger then the outside cannot keep up with the inside
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
How does a prokaryotic cell store genetic information?
In a circle ring
How does a eukaryotic cell store genetic information?
In the form of an X chromosome
How does a Prokaryotic cell divide?
Through binary fission
Uncontrolled cell growth
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
How many times does meiosis occur
What did Gregor Mendel do?
Breed different variations of garden pea plants in the 1800s
What is Gregor Mendel known as?
The Father of Genetics
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
An organisms genetic identity or makeup
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
traits controlled by two or more genes
What can affect someone's phenotype?
Your genotype and environment
What is DNA made of?
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
What does DNA store?
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
DNA and RNA
two types of nucleic acids
Nitrogenous base that pairs with thymine (T) during DNA replication.
Nitrogenous base that pairs with cytosine (C) during DNA replication.
Nitrogenous base that pairs with guanine (G) during DNA replication.
Nitrogenous base that pairs with adenine (A) during DNA replication.
sugar and phosphate
Double helix, a.k.a. the twisted ladder
Adenine and Guanine (double ring8
Cytosine and Thymine ( one ring)
DNA replication occur?
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
What replaces Thymine in RNA?
Equation for photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide + water (in the presence of light) = glucose + oxygen
Equation for cellular respiration
Oxygen + glucose= carbon dioxide, water, energy
Parts of ATP
Adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups
energy stored in ATP?
Between 2nd and 3rd phosphate
Process that requires oxygen
Process that does not require oxygen
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