AP Human Geography Vocabulary Industrialization Unit
Terms in this set (20)
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market
Core -periphery model (again!)
Describes the pattern of distribution of the MDCs and LDCs. When the earth is viewed from the North Pole (azimuthal), the MDCs are clustered near the center of the map (core) while the LDCs are near the edges (periphery).
Process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
The extent to which the human and natural resources of an area or country have been brought into full productive use; used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs. They include GDP, literacy rate, life expectancy, caloric intake, etc
Export processing zones
Established by many countries in the periphery and semi -periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract business and investment (labor is cheaper and environmental restrictions are relatively weak).
An economy that is within government regulation, taxation, and observation where everything is organized.
Expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to a global scale and impact; these processes transcend state boundaries.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced in a year in a given country. The value varies greatly between MDCs and LDCs and is one of the best indicators of development.
Gross national product (GNP) (again!)
Similar to GDP except that includes income that people earn abroad.
High -technology corridors
Areas devoted to research, development, and sale of high technology products; the networking and synergistic advantages of concentrating in these areas (with good universities and infrastructure) facilitate modern technological innovation (e.g., Silicon Valley, Boston).
Human development index (HDI)
An aggregate index of development, which takes into account economic, social and demographic factors, using GDP, literacy and education, and life expectancy.
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government (not included in GNP as the formal economy is); examples are the black market, illegal drug trade, odd jobs or work done "under the table", and remittances (money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries).
An extremely small loan given to impoverished people to help them become self employed.
Modernization model (Rostow's model)
(1960s) stated countries develop through five stages:
Stage 1: Traditional
Stage 2: Preconditions for takeoff
Stage 3: Takeoff
Stage 4: Drive to Maturity
Stage 5: Age of Mass Consumption
The economic control that MDCs are sometimes believed to have over LDCs. Through organizations such as the IMF, the MDCs are able to dictate precisely what LDCs economic policies are, or are able to use their economic subsidies to put LDCs industries out of business.
New international division of labor
Phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world ; made possible through improvements in communication and transportation systems (resulting in time -space compression)
-It is a system of spatial disaggregation; high tech and final assembly (core), manufacturing (increasingly in the semi -periphery), raw materials (many from the periphery)
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
Organization not run by state or local governments that generally operate as nonprofits; they have created a web of global development networks in response to top -down (governmental) decision making dominated by the core (e.g., World Bank, WTO (World Trade Organization), IMF (International Monetary Fund)).
Refers to a center of high -tech manufacturing and information -based quaternary industry. These may be developed by the private sector or by the co -operation or partnership between the public and private sectors.
The condition experienced by economies that depend on colonial forms of production such as the export of raw materials and plantation crops with low wages and low investment in education.
A disease carried from one host to another by an intermediate host.